How to Make Money – Banking & Insurance – Part I

Royal Exchange and The Bank of England

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor  based on the works of Thomas A. Davies Revised & Rewritten with Additions by Henry A. Ford A.M. – 1884


I wish I could write all across the sky, in letters of gold, the one word, SAVINGS-BANK. Rev Wm. Marsh

The relations of the banking system to the operations of general trade are so intimate and indispensable  that every man of business should be acquainted with their nature and extent. James D. Mills

Insurance is to-day recognized as not only an integral and necessary factor in the commerce of nations, but it is imperatively demanded for the establishment and maintenance of commercial credit among all civilized peoples. To such importance has it grown that governments have acquired immense revenues by taxing the income derived from it, and have in some instances assume greater or less control over it. Insurance Year Book

BANKS are of three kinds -of discount and deposit, individual or private, and savings-banks. They have all but one object—to make money with money. This principle is all-important with the money-maker; and to know how this is done is to accomplish a great object.  This chapter will not presue to give such institutions or individuals any information how it is to be done; for their success generally is a proof that they understand that. Further, it is an occupation—that may me considered a trade within itself— requiring long experience, large knowledge of values, good judgment, rare firmness, and in fact every business qualification in high perfection. Reference to banking as one of the most extensive means of making money with money, is simply to show the moneymaker, after he has got his dollar, how others manage their dollars to advantage, so that he may know the danger of managing his own with his trifling information—a subject which requires superior knowledge and high acquirements to do well.

No statistics are at hand to compare directly any other trade or business with banking in the particular of success. An interesting fact, however, was asserted by an officer of an old Boston bank, that an investigation of their books revealed the fact that, of the one thousand accounts opened with it in starting, only six remained with it forty years afterwards. The parties to all the others had either failed or died destitute of property. The bank had stood, while nine hundred and ninety-four traders out of one thousand had gone down. It can probably be asserted with safety that not five per cent of failures occur in any regular banking business, while there are ninety to ninety-five per cent among commercial houses. Both deal substantially in the same things, the one class in the articles themselves, the other in the paper representing their value. This fact is sufficient to awaken the mind of the merchant or trader to an investigation of the manner in which banks handle their values—what they do, how and when they do it, and how they happen to succeed when so many others lose and fail. And now, Mr. Trader, or Sir Merchant, if you are wide awake enough to this fact to push the investigation and profit by it, you are prepared for a better day’s work than you ever did in your life. But more likely you will say, “Pooh! a bank is one thing, a mercantile business another.”  You say the truth, indeed, as both are conducted at the present day. The result, however, is that the one is a success, while the other is a failure.

But not the trader alone is interested in this question: it is for every one who has made a dollar or who is in the way of making it, to be interested in knowing the machinery of banking, how money is made from money, and further, to know that it requires machinery of a peculiarly delicate nature, and specially well managed, to accomplish the object, at least in this particular way of making money with money. More than half the people who have labored for their dollar do not know that such machinery can have the least bearing upon what they have made, and that putting it through this machine, or some process like it, will send it forth increased in value. The trouble is that they generally put it into some kind of a machine which never allows them to see it again at all, much less any increase from it.

Can the fine, exact machinery of a mint be made by a novice? or can it be managed by one totally ignorant of its construction’? Just as well might a man attempt to increase his means without some knowledge of the necessary machinery, as to coin a standard dollar without knowing the process by which it is coined, and having the faculty to use bis knowledge in the coinage. The trade of multiplying dollars by making dollars work is not caught up in the inspiration of the moment, and he who has a dollar to set at work must know well how the work is to be done; he must find a machine that is known to do this kind of work well, or loss of it is the inevitable result. Hence the long, sad list of failures and wide-spread poverty among our most worthy and energetic men—not to accomplish or earn, or even to amass, but to save, because their dollar has gone into the wrong machine.

The process of banking is the machinery required in order to make money with money. What is this process? In banks of discount and deposit, a number of capitalists generally put in a sum of money apiece, and receive therefor certificates of stock, according to the amount of their subscriptions. The stockholders duly assemble and choose several of their own number for directors, who in turn meet and elect a president, cashier, and sometimes other officers. In their bank people leave (deposit) their money for safekeeping within convenient reach; and the original money subscribed by the stockholders, with the deposits, makes a capital with which to purchase moneyed, interest-bearing securities—generally notes of hand, representing property of different kinds. The  bank is then ready for business—to loan the money on short dates for an increase.

The whole matter is very simple to this point, and almost anyone could go through it. But now comes the tug of war, for success or failure, even in this business. A merchant enters with a note he has taken for goods sold, and says to the Cashier, “I wish you would give me the money on this.” The answer is, “I will hand it to the President, and give you a reply after the Board meets.” The President lays the applicant’s paper before the Board of Directors; and if it is strongly endorsed and has collateral security enough to make the loan perfectly safe, the note is “done,” as it is called, and the merchant gets his money.

Do you see anything in this process to attract attention? When you take a note, or part with property or money, do yon do anything of this kind? Do you submit your financial transactions for the approval or rejection of two shrewd, trained business men, who, not content to rely solely upon their own
judgment, summon to their aid a number of other first-class business men, to pass upon the security offered? Bear in mind that in the very first instance they require at least two good, strong names to start with, or equally safe collateral security, and then that the line of payment is usually very short— from thirty to ninety days. Sometimes a bank loses even with these precautions ; but not very often. By requiring two names and making the time of payment short, one or the other is pretty certain to save the loan. No business transaction has not some risk, the main thing being to reduce that risk by every devisable precaution as low as possible. In the matter of taking a note, twelve to fourteen able and longtrained business men carefully consult as to the value of the security proposed, and everyone is pecuniarily interested in the result. An isolated person, then, who has a security to take, can consult no one else who has a like intercst with him. Such investments are generally made upon reference to persons who have no interest with the one who parts with his property, but whose interest as a general rule is to have you part with your property, that they may get pay for the property with which they have parted.

Now, do you think a bank would part with its money on such terms or such representations? If it did, anyone knows what would be the result. Do you wonder, then, that on such a system of credits traders fail, or that banks succeed by such care, caution, and scrutinizing discrimination? The banks divide their earnnings periodically among the stockholders, who make new investments in similar kind; while the trader declares no dividend, puts nothing away to the good, but keeps all his eggs in one basket, subject to the vicissitudes of trade.

Banks of discount and deposit are useful, as a means  of making money with money, to those who have com, comparatively large sums to set at work. But there is a class of moneyed institutions called savings-banks, in which any person can in like manner set any sum at work, from one dime upward. But the amount of profit derived is not generally so great as in the banks of discount and deposit. The savings-banks will receive separate treatment presently.

Although banks present so far the nearest approach to perfection in the interchange of values represented by paper, there are certain general principles that will materially increase these earnings. They may briefly
be stated to be,—

  • First, the business qualifications of its officers.
  • Second, judicious selection of its credit.
  • Third, the current expenses.
  • Fourth, general reputation.

The personal popularity of the officers of a bank, and the manner in which customers or depositors are treated, either win or lose money for the concern, the same general rules of courtesy holding in these cases as in transactions between merchants, or between them and their customers. No thoughtful business man will neglect this principle, whether he is in a bank or any other business where his profits depend upon people who have a choice, and can take their money at discretion to one or to another. If a depositor goes into a bank to get some of his money, and a teller makes him wait while he finishes a long chat with a fellow-clerk or adds up a column of figures as long as his arm, which he could just as well postpone a moment, the underling is unfit for his place and is a damage to the bank—money actually lost to it. Say what you will, the waiting man feels uncomfortable; and instead of using his influence to advance the interests of that institution, he will hold it back, if he does not inflict damage in some way. Instead of an active friend, the bank will have but a cool one, if not an open enemy; and there is no telling when his influence, by a single word, may not strike to its damage or loss. So any other carelessness or neglect, on the part of a bank officer or employee, will tend to the same result.

On the other hand, to be polite, attentive, agreeable to all, at the same time doing business on business principles, will bring many dollars into the deposit-line, and long keep them there. The bank will make powerful friends, whose influence will be exerted to bring it new business and open new avenues of profit. An interest in the welfare and prosperity of the institution is lighted up, that will serve as a watchfire for its interests, and give the alarm when danger of loss appears. A general reputation and thrift will be infused into its whole business, which will roll in heavily on the deposit-line and out heavily on the dividends. In time of trouble all will pay such an institution who can.

Savings-banks are organized and conducted by persons of much practical knowledge and financial skill, for the benefit of those who desire to save and improve small sums of money, but do not know where or how to place them at interest, and yet have them subject to their call. The savings-bank was started by Miss Priscilla Wakeham, of the Parish of Tottenham, Middlesex, England, nearly a century ago, and after some years had a yery rapid growth. The plan is eminently useful and truly charitable. It requires a convenient building for its business, and the usual officers to conduct it. They take deposits, large or small, and invest them in good-sized sums at higher rates of interest than they pay depositors, the difference being used for current expenses and salaries. The interest received is usually seven per cent or more, and that paid depositors is four to five per cent, and even less for very short periods of deposit.

The bank holds itself ready to meet obligations to depositors at all times, on demand. The advantage resulting to the depositor is apparent, since he can not invest small sums safely in any other way. He generally knows nothing of practical financiering, and it would be costly for him to get security by any other means. Other securities, too, are not always convertible into cash without some percentage of loss.

Too much can hardly be said in favor of savings institutions for the protection of earnings and as incentives to economy. They supply a safe and certain means by which in a few years, as we have already seen, an independence can be attained, and the money that represents it is always within reach. The money that a mechanic, day-laborer, domestic, operative, or other wage-worker, spends in trifles that add neither to his comfort nor happiness, is a powerful stream of wealth, which, if poured into a savings-bank, soon becomes a large amount of money. The first dollar thus saved and fast anchored, becomes the nucleus of further and rapid additions, and the taste for economy and desire of accumulation will grow with every successive deposit. Such a person becomes a conservative member of society, a good, prosperous citizen. When a man or woman has made the first deposit, from that moment his or her services are more valuable, and higher wages can be commanded. It is a guarantee or endorsement that the depositor’s course of life is to be governed by principles of economy and habits of saving, and that the property of an employer is not to be wasted or destroyed. Noon, then, should fail to make a first deposit, or to train himself to strict principles of economy, the cutting off of such expenses as are not really necessary for either comfort or respectability. It should be remembered, also, that such a course commands general respect and uplifts the depositor’s character. One feels more independent, and carries the evidence of it in his whole bearing and demeanor, when he is free of debt and has money at interest. If this statement should be challenged by anyone, let him try it, and  he will find, from the instant of success, that he lives in a new world. Any person, no matter what his walk in life, is more esteemed and more deferred to by his fellows if he is known to be without embarrassments or encumbrances, and has, money at his disposal. The same rule governs the coachman, the housemaid—classes of persons. Let it become known that an industrious young working man or woman has a bank account, with his bank-book as the evidence of it; and though the amount of his deposit be wholly unknown, the mere fact of it gives one importance and influence. There is no surer way for a young woman to get a husband, and most likely a good one, than to have a good sum in bank.

Upon the next two pages we give tables showing the wonderful results of compounding interest for terms of one year to one hundred years, and at rates from one to eight per cent. Upon the basis of the one dollar given, the amount for any sum may be computed. Thus, to find what $50 will come to in twenty years, at four per cent interest, find the result for one dollar in the table, which is $2.19, and multiply it by fifty, which gives $109.50. These tables are highly interesting and valuable, and should be carefully studied.



Under the head of Insurance are classed several varieties—among the more common fire, marine, inland, accident, and life, among the rarer tornado, livestock, and plate-glass insurance.  All belong to the class of business we are considering—money-making with money. They are further subdivided into cash and mutual companies, and are here considered more as examples how money can be made with money, and s0 of peculiar interest to the money-maker, than with a view to special commendation of them, as the most or the least profitable method of so doing. It is rather also to explain their existence as means of saving than of making.

Like banks, insurance companies are usually conducted by superior business men, and upon the same general principles. They have become genuine necessities to all who have property at the risk of the elements, and can not afford to insure themselves—that is, to lose without embarrassment. To the moneymaker they are invaluable, not only as a means of offset against loss, but to make accumulated money gain money. Sometimes the profits of such a business are very large—and at times, too, more frequently than in banking, there is a total loss of the capital invested. It may be said, indeed, that in all business where profits are large, corresponding risks of loss are run. In this branch the chances of gain are greater on marine than on fire insurance, other things being equal.

But the chief benefit of such institutions to the money-maker is that, if his property is in such shape that it can be destroyed by the elements, and it is so
destroyed, wholly or partly, he can cover his loss by the payment annually of a comparatively small sum. Every one, therefore, who is endeavoring to make
money should keep all his endangered property fully insured. An hour’s neglect may lose you many years of toil, as has repeatedly occurred. Take especial care when yon settle’ your agreements with the company’s agent; see that all stipulations are written into the body of the policy, and read it over when completed, with cautious criticism of every point and particular. Observe what you agree, and what they agree, to do. Probably not one-half the policies which are signed and accepted are read over in detail. People presume as of course that they are all right. So they may be; but enough unpleasant surprises and serious losses have resulted from this neglect to put you upon thorough watchfulness in the matter.

If, too, you do not know the officers of a company to be honest and reliable men, with a high standing as such in the community, let it alone; it will probably not pay you in case of loss, if it can get out of it. And if you hear of a company whose” adjuster” is forever chaffering, and screwing and sealing down a loss, and never paying fairly full amounts, especially when a poor man or woman has sustained the loss, have nothing to do with that company; its managers will deal with you so in your day of distress. They have been paid your premiums to pay your loss in full to the extent of your policy, and should do so as cheerfully as they have taken your money. Look more to these than to the capital of the company; but look well to both. Don’t trust your property in the hands of those whom you do not know, personally or by authentic reputation, “down to the ground.” Better pay a fair, reputable company—one that will take pains at once to find out what is your entire loss, and then pay it promptly—a large price at first, than have ten times the sum pared off by a rascally adjuster when your loss occurs. No company, it is true, will undertake this unless steeped in ignorance of its true interests; nor will it retain an official for one moment who tries to save dishonestly on a loss. They lose more by him in the end than do the insured. It is the style in which losses are settled that mainly draws business or repels it. No one forgets the company or the man who does the dishonest thing under such painful circumstances, or the one who deals fairly and uprightly with the misfortune.

The insured may be called upon to take the company’s promise-to-pay for a large amount. Ask yourself, then, Would a bank take their note for this sum, and pay the face of it? Following fully the bank example, you would have to inquire of twelve or fourteen good business men whether they would do so, and trust the company if they would, taking your insurance accordingly.

But on the other hand, the company may be, and often is, subject to fraud by the insured. It is for its interest never to presume fraud without positive proof, at least such proof as would convince a jury. It may better pay, and look next time more carefully to the policy-holder’s character. More money will be made in the long-run by this course. For its own interest, too, there should be no long delay or palaver about the payment of a loss, unless it is intended to contest the case in the courts. A compromise will lose the company more than the sum apparently saved, since one-half of those who hear of it will take for granted that it was an unjust settlement.

The same exercise of civility and pleasant manners, and of interest in the insured, that was recommended to bank officers and employees, is necessary also in the insurance business. All courtesies tell to the profit of the company, the enlargement of its dividends; and in general there is no business in which sound judgments, honest purposes, good reputation, and a fair policy, are rewarded with more promptness and fullness than in this.


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Of the making of books about Napoleon there is no end, and the centenary of his death (May 5) is not likely to pass without adding to the number, but a volume on Napoleon”s pharmacists still awaits treatment by the student in this field of historical research. There [...] Read more →

The English Tradition of Woodworking

THE sense of a consecutive tradition has so completely faded out of English art that it has become difficult to realise the meaning of tradition, or the possibility of its ever again reviving; and this state of things is not improved by the fact that it is due to uncertainty of purpose, [...] Read more →

Banana Propagation

Banana Propagation

Reprinted from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (

The traditional means of obtaining banana planting material (“seed”) is to acquire suckers from one’s own banana garden, from a neighbor, or from a more distant source. This method served to spread common varieties around the world and to multiply them [...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

The Human Seasons

John Keats

Four Seasons fill the measure of the year; There are four seasons in the mind of man: He has his lusty spring, when fancy clear Takes in all beauty with an easy span; He has his Summer, when luxuriously Spring’s honied cud of youthful thoughts he loves To ruminate, and by such [...] Read more →

Tuna and Tarpon

July, 16, l898 Forest and Stream Pg. 48

Tuna and Tarpon.

New York, July 1.—Editor Forest and Stream: If any angler still denies the justice of my claim, as made in my article in your issue of July 2, that “the tuna is the grandest game [...] Read more →

Abingdon, Berkshire in the Year of 1880

St.Helen’s on the Thames, photo by Momit


From a Dictionary of the Thames from Oxford to the Nore. 1880 by Charles Dickens

Abingdon, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 103 3/4miles, from Oxford 7 3/4 miles. A station on the Great Western Railway, from Paddington 60 miles. The time occupied [...] Read more →

A Conversation between H.F. Leonard and K. Higashi

H.F. Leonard was an instructor in wrestling at the New York Athletic Club. Katsukum Higashi was an instructor in Jujitsu.

“I say with emphasis and without qualification that I have been unable to find anything in jujitsu which is not known to Western wrestling. So far as I can see, [...] Read more →

Some Notes on American Ship Worms

July 9, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 25

Some Notes on American Ship-Worms.

[Read before the American Fishes Congress at Tampa.]

While we wish to preserve and protect most of the products of our waters, these creatures we would gladly obliterate from the realm of living things. For [...] Read more →

Travels by Narrowboat

Oh Glorious England, verdant fields and wandering canals…

In this wonderful series of videos, the CountryHouseGent takes the viewer along as he chugs up and down the many canals crisscrossing England in his classic Narrowboat. There is nothing like a free man charting his own destiny.

On Bernini’s Bust of a Stewart King

As reported in the The Colac Herald on Friday July 17, 1903 Pg. 8 under Art Appreciation as a reprint from the Westminster Gazette


The appreciation of art as well as of history which is entertained by the average member of the [...] Read more →

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

Reprint from the Royal Collection Trust Website

The meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, took place between 7 to 24 June 1520 in a valley subsequently called the Val d’Or, near Guisnes to the south of Calais. The [...] Read more →

Classic Restoration of a Spring Tied Upholstered Chair


This video by AT Restoration is the best hands on video I have run across on the basics of classic upholstery. Watch a master at work. Simply amazing.


Round needles: Double pointed hand needle: Hand tools: Staple gun (for beginner): Compressor [...] Read more →

Commercial Fried Fish Cake Recipe

Dried Norwegian Salt Cod

Fried fish cakes are sold rather widely in delicatessens and at prepared food counters of department stores in the Atlantic coastal area. This product has possibilities for other sections of the country.


Home Top of [...] Read more →

Fresh Water Angling – The Two Crappies


July 2, 1898 Forest and Stream,

Fresh-Water Angling. No. IX.—The Two Crappies. BY FRED MATHER.

Fishing In Tree Tops.

Here a short rod, say 8ft., is long enough, and the line should not be much longer than the rod. A reel is not [...] Read more →

Origin of the Apothecary


The origin of the apothecary in England dates much further back than one would suppose from what your correspondent, “A Barrister-at-Law,” says about it. It is true he speaks only of apothecaries as a distinct branch of the medical profession, but long before Henry VIII’s time [...] Read more →

The Snipe

THE SNIPE, from the Shooter’s Guide by B. Thomas – 1811

AFTER having given a particular description of the woodcock, it will only. be necessary to observe, that the plumage and shape of the snipe is much the same ; and indeed its habits and manners sets bear a great [...] Read more →

A Cure for Distemper in Dogs


The following cure was found written on a front flyleaf in an 1811 3rd Ed. copy of The Sportsman’s Guide or Sportsman’s Companion: Containing Every Possible Instruction for the Juvenille Shooter, Together with Information Necessary for the Experienced Sportsman by B. Thomas.



Vaccinate your dogs when young [...] Read more →

The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing

The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing Experimental Study and Review of the Literature

Steven L. Henry, MD, Matthew J. Concannon, MD, and Gloria J. Yee, MD Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Missouri Hospital & Clinics, Columbia, MO Published July 25, 2008

Objective: Magnets [...] Read more →

The Flying Saucers are Real by Donald Keyhoe

It was a strange assignment. I picked up the telegram from desk and read it a third time.

NEW YORK, N.Y., MAY 9, 1949


Ought King Leopold to be Hanged?

King Leopold Butcher of the Congo

For the somewhat startling suggestion in the heading of this interview, the missionary interviewed is in no way responsible. The credit of it, or, if you like, the discredit, belongs entirely to the editor of the Review, who, without dogmatism, wishes to pose the question as [...] Read more →

Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

Mortlake Tapestries at Chatsworth House

Click here to learn more about the Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

The Mortlake Tapestries were founded by Sir Francis Crane.

From the Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 13

Crane, Francis by William Prideaux Courtney

CRANE, Sir FRANCIS (d. [...] Read more →

Tobacco as Medicine

The first published illustration of Nicotiana tabacum by Pena and De L’Obel, 1570–1571 (shrpium adversana nova: London).

Tobacco can be used for medicinal purposes, however, the ongoing American war on smoking has all but obscured this important aspect of ancient plant.

Tobacco is considered to be an indigenous plant of [...] Read more →

Books of Use to the International Art Collector

Hebborn Piranesi

Before meeting with an untimely death at the hand of an unknown assassin in Rome on January 11th, 1996, master forger Eric Hebborn put down on paper a wealth of knowledge about the art of forgery. In a book published posthumously in 1997, titled The Art Forger’s Handbook, Hebborn suggests [...] Read more →

Making Apple Cider Vinegar

The greatest cause of failure in vinegar making is carelessness on the part of the operator. Intelligent separation should be made of the process into its various steps from the beginning to end.


The apples should be clean and ripe. If not clean, undesirable fermentations [...] Read more →

Gout Remedies

Jan Verkolje Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe gout or uric acid crystals 1679.

For one suffering gout, the following vitamins, herbs, and extracts may be worth looking into:

Vitamin C Folic Acid – Folic Acid is a B vitamin and is also known as B9 – [Known food [...] Read more →

A Survey of Palestine – 1945-1946

This massive volume gives one a real visual sense of what it was like running a highly efficient colonial operation in the early 20rh Century. It will also go a long way to help anyone wishing to understand modern political intrigue in the Middle-East.

Click here to read A Survey of Palestine [...] Read more →

Proper Book Handling and Cleaning

Book Conservators, Mitchell Building, State Library of New South Wales, 29.10.1943, Pix Magazine

The following is taken verbatim from a document that appeared several years ago in the Maine State Archives. It seems to have been removed from their website. I happened to have made a physical copy of it at the [...] Read more →

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Translated into English by PANCHAM SINH

Panini Office, Allahabad [1914]


There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves [...] Read more →

Sir Joshua Reynolds – Notes from Rome

“The Leda, in the Colonna palace, by Correggio, is dead-coloured white and black, with ultramarine in the shadow ; and over that is scumbled, thinly and smooth, a warmer tint,—I believe caput mortuum. The lights are mellow ; the shadows blueish, but mellow. The picture is painted on panel, in [...] Read more →

Something about Caius College, Cambridge

Gate of Honour, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius

Gonville & Caius College, known as Caius and pronounced keys was founded in 1348 by Edmund Gonville, the Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk. The first name was thus Goville Hall and it was dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. [...] Read more →

The Charge of the Light Brigade

Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!” he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Home Top of [...] Read more →

JP Morgan’s Digital Currency Patent Application

J.P. Morgan Patent #8,452,703

Method and system for processing internet payments using the electronic funds transfer network.


Embodiments of the invention include a method and system for conducting financial transactions over a payment network. The method may include associating a payment address of an account [...] Read more →

Seeds for Rootstocks of Fruit and Nut Trees

Citrus Fruit Culture

THE PRINCIPAL fruit and nut trees grown commercially in the United States (except figs, tung, and filberts) are grown as varieties or clonal lines propagated on rootstocks.

Almost all the rootstocks are grown from seed. The resulting seedlings then are either budded or grafted with propagating wood [...] Read more →

Blackberry Wine


5 gallons of blackberries 5 pound bag of sugar

Fill a pair of empty five gallon buckets half way with hot soapy water and a ¼ cup of vinegar. Wash thoroughly and rinse.

Fill one bucket with two and one half gallons of blackberries and crush with [...] Read more →

The First Christian Man Cremated in America

Laurens’ portrait as painted during his time spent imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was kept for over a year after being captured at sea while serving as the United States minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

The first Christian white man to be cremated in America was [...] Read more →

History of the Cabildo in New Orleans

Cabildo circa 1936

The Cabildo houses a rare copy of Audubon’s Bird’s of America, a book now valued at $10 million+.

Should one desire to visit the Cabildo, click here to gain free entry with a lowcost New Orleans Pass.

Home Top of [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

What’s the Matter?

A rhetorical question? Genuine concern?

In this essay we are examining another form of matter otherwise known as national literary matters, the three most important of which being the Matter of Rome, Matter of France, and the Matter of England.

Our focus shall be on the Matter of England or [...] Read more →

Fed Policy Success Equals Tax Payers Job Insecurity

The low level of work stoppages of recent years also attests to concern about job security.

Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan The Federal Reserve’s semiannual monetary policy report Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate February 26, 1997

Iappreciate the opportunity to appear before this Committee [...] Read more →

Sea and River Fishing

An angler with a costly pole Surmounted with a silver reel, Carven in quaint poetic scroll- Jointed and tipped with finest steel— With yellow flies, Whose scarlet eyes And jasper wings are fair to see, Hies to the stream Whose bubbles beam Down murmuring eddies wild and free. And casts the line with sportsman’s [...] Read more →

U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act – Full Text

WIPO HQ Geneva


TITLE I – PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION OFFICE Chapter Section 1. Organization and Publications . 1 2. Legal Provisions as to the Plant Variety Protection Office . 21 3. Plant Variety Protection Fees . 31


A History of the Use of Arsenicals in Man

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

The Perfect Salad Dressing

The following recipes are from a small booklet entitled 500 Delicious Salads that was published for the Culinary Arts Institute in 1940 by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc. 153 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.

If you have been looking for a way to lighten up your salads and be free of [...] Read more →

A Few Wine Recipes

EIGHTEEN GALLONS is here give as a STANDARD for all the following Recipes, it being the most convenient size cask to Families. See A General Process for Making Wine

If, however, only half the quantity of Wine is to be made, it is but to divide the portions of [...] Read more →