The Billesden Coplow Run

*note – Billesdon and Billesden have both been used to name the hunt.


[From “Reminiscences of the late Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq”]

The run celebrated in the following verses took place on the 24th of February, 1800, when Mr. Meynell hunted Leicestershire, and has since been known as the Billesden Coplow Run. It will only cease to interest, says a writer in the Sporting Magazine, when the grass shall grow in winter in the streets of Melton Mowbray. They found in the covert from which the song takes its name, thence to Skeffington Earths, past Tilton Woods, by Tugby and Whetstone, where the field, as many as could get over, crossed the river Soar. Thence the hounds changing their fox, carried a head to Enderby Gorse, where they lost him, after a chase of two hours and fifteen minutes, the distance being twenty-eight miles. A picture descriptive of this famous run was painted by Loraine Smith, Esq., who was one of the few who got over the river, and was until very lately in the possession of Robert Haymes, Esq., of Great Glenn, Leicestershire. In this painting, which shows the field in the act of crossing the Soar, we see Mr. Germaine, who has just crossed it, and was the only one out that day who did so on horseback. Mr. Musters is in the middle of the stream, and on the point of throwing himself off his horse, who is too much distressed to carry him over. The other horsemen in the picture are Jack Raven the huntsman, Lord Maynard, and his servant, who are all three coming up towards the stream. Mr. Loraine Smith, ” the Enderby Squire,” who of course well knows the locality, is crossing a ford on foot, and leading his horse, higher up the stream. The hounds are seen ascending the hill on the opposite side, in full cry, leaving Enderby village and church to the left. The song was written by the Rev. Robert Lowth, son of the eminent Bishop of London of that name. The reverend divine was one of the field, being on a visit at Melton at that time, and wrote the song at the request of the Honourable George Germaine, brother of Lord Sackville, afterwards Duke of Dorset, in consequence of some in correct accounts of the run which had been published.

By the Rev. Robert Lowth

                                              ” Quseque ipse miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui.”

With the wind at north-east, forbiddingly keen,
The Coplow of Billesden ne’er witness’d, I ween,
Two hundred such horses and men at a burst,
All determined to ride—each resolved to be first.
But to get a good start over-eager and jealous,
Two thirds, at the least, of these very fine fellows
So crowded, and hustled, and jostled, and cross’d,
That they rode the wrong way, and at starting were lost.
In spite of th’ unpromising state of the weather,
Away broke the fox, and the hounds close together :
A burst up to Tilton so brilliantly ran,
Was scarce ever seen in the mem’ry of man.

What hounds guided scent, or which led the way,
Your bard—to their names quite a stranger—can’t say ;
Though their names had he known, he is free to confess,
His horse could not show him at such a death-pace.
Villiers, Cholmondeley, and Forester made such sharp play,
Not omitting Germaine, never seen till to-day :
Had you judged of these four by the trim of their pace,
At Bibury you’d thought they’d been riding a race.
But these hounds with a scent, how they dash and they fling,
To o’er-ride them is quite the impossible thing ;
Disdaining to hang in the wood, through he raced,
And the open for Skeffington gallantly faced ;
Where headed and foil’d, his first point he forsook,
And merrily led them a dance o’er the brook.
Pass’d Galby and Norton, Great Stretton and Small,
Right onward still sweeping to old Stretton Hall ;
Where two minutes’ check served to show at one ken
The extent of the havoc ‘mongst horses and men.
Such sighing, such sobbing, such trotting, such walking ;
Such reeling, such halting, of fences such baulking ;
Such a smoke in the gaps, such comparing of notes ;
Such quizzing each other’s daub’d breeches and coats :
Here a man walk’d afoot who his horse had half kill’d,
There you met with a steed who his rider had spill’d :
In short, such dilemmas, such scrapes, such distress,
One fox ne’er occasion’d, the knowing confess.
But, alas ! the dilemmas had scarcely began,
On for Wigston and Ayleston he resolute ran,
Where a few of the stoutest now slacken’d and panted,
And many were seen irretrievably planted.
The high road to Leicester the scoundrel then cross’d,
As Tell-tale 1 and Beaufremont 2 found to their cost ;
1 Mr. Forester’s horse. 2Mr. Maddock’s horse.

And Villiers esteem’d it a serious bore,
That no longer could Shuttlecock1 fly as before ;
Even Joe Miller’s2 spirit of fun was so broke,
That he ceased to consider the run as a joke.
Then streaming away, o’er the river he splashed,—
Germaine close at hand, off the bank Melon3 dash’d.
Why so stout proved the Dun, in a scamper so wild ?
Till now he had only been rode by a Child.4
After him plunged Joe Miller with Musters so slim,
Who twice sank, and nearly paid dear for his whim,
Not reflecting that all water Melons must swim.
Well soused by their dip, on they brush’d o’er the bottom,
With liquor on board, enough to besot ’em.
But the villain, no longer at all at a loss,
Stretch’d away like a d—I for Enderby Gorse :
Where meeting with many a brother and cousin,
Who knew how to dance a good hay in the furzen ;
Jack Raven5 at length coming up on a hack,
That a farmer had lent him, whipp’d off the game pack.
Running sulky, old Loadstone 6 the stream would not swim,
No longer sport proving a magnet to him.
Of mistakes, and mishaps, and what each man befel,
Would the muse could with justice poetical tell !
Bob Grosvenor on Plush7—though determined to ride—
Lost, at first, a good start, and was soon set aside ;
Though he charged hill and dale, not to lose this rare chase,
On velvet, Plush could not get a footing, alas !
To Tilton sail’d bravely Sir Wheeler O’Cuff,
Where neglecting, through hurry, to keep a good luff,
1 Lord Villiers’ horse. 2 Mr. Musters’ horse.
3 Mr. Germaine’s horse. 4 Formerly Mr. Child’s.
5 The name of the huntsman. 6The huntsman’s horse.
7 Mr. Robert Grosvenor’s horse.

To leeward he drifts—how provoking a case !
And was forced, though reluctant, to give up the chase.
As making his way to the pack’s not his forte,
Sir Lawley,1 as usual, lost half of the sport.
But then the profess’d philosophical creed,
That ” all’s for the best,”—of Master Candide,
If not comfort Sir R., reconcile may at least ;
For, with this supposition, his sport is the best.

Orby Hunter, who seem’d to be hunting his fate,
Got falls, to the tune of no fewer than eight.
Bashan’s king,2 upon Glimpse,3 sadly out of condition,
Pull’d up, to avoid of being tired the suspicion.
Og did right so to yield ; for he very soon found,
His worst had he done, he’d have scarce glimpsed a hound.
Charles Meynell, who lay very well with the hounds,
Till of Stretton he nearly arrived at the bounds,
Now discover’d that Waggoner4 rather would creep,
Than exert his great prowess in taking a leap ;
But when crossing the turnpike, he read ⇒ ” Put on here,”
‘Twas enough to make any one bluster and swear.
The Waggoner feeling familiar the road,
Was resolved not to quit it ; so stock still he stood.
Yet prithee, dear Charles ! why rash vows will you make,
Thy leave of old Billesden5 to finally take ?
Since from Legg’s Hill,6 for instance, or perhaps Melton
If they go a good pace, you are beat for a guinea !
1 Sir Robert Lawley, called Sir Lawley in the Melton dialect.
2 Mr. Oglander, familiarly called Og. 3 Mr. Oglander’s horse.
4 Mr. C. Meynell’s horse.
He had threatened never to follow the hounds again from Billesden,
on account of his weight.
6 A different part of the hunt.

‘Tis money, they say, makes the mare to go kind ;
The proverb has vouch’d for this time out of mind ;
But though of this truth you admit the full force,
It may not hold so good of every horse.
If it did, Ellis Charles need not bustle and hug,
By name, not by nature, his favourite Slug.1
Yet Slug as he is—the whole of this chase
Charles ne’er could have seen, had he gone a snail’s pace.
Old Gradus,2 whose fretting and fuming at first
Disqualify strangely for such a tight burst,
Ere to Tilton arrived, ceased to pull and to crave,
And though freshisA at Stretton, he stepp’d a pas grave !
Where, in turning him over a cramp kind of place,
He overturn’d George, whom he threw on his face ;
And on foot to walk home it had sure been his fate,
But that soon he was caught, and tied up to a gate.

Near Wigston occurr’d a most singular joke,
Captain Miller averr’d that his leg he had broke,—
And bemoan’d, in most piteous expressions, how hard,
By so cruel a fracture, to have his sport marr’d.
In quizzing his friends he felt little remorse,
To finesse the complete doing up of his horse.
Had he told a long story of losing a shoe,
Or of laming his horse, he very well knew
That the Leicestershire creed out this truism worms,
“Lost shoes and dead beat are synonymous terms.”
So a horse must here learn, whatever he does,
To die game—as at Tyburn—and ” die in his shoes.”
Bethel Cox, and Tom Smith, Messieurs Bennett and
Their nags all contrived to reduce to a walk.
1 Mr. Charles Ellis’s horse. 2.Mr. George Ellis’s horse

Maynard’s Lord, who detests competition and strife,
As well in the chase as in social life,
Than whom nobody harder has rode in his time,
But to crane here and there now thinks it no crime,
That he beat some crack riders most fairly may crow,
For he lived to the end, though he scarcely knows how.

With snaffle and martingale held in the rear,
His horse’s mouth open half up to his ear ;
Mr. Wardle, who threaten’d great things over night,1
Beyond Stretton was left in most terrible plight
Too lean to be press’d, yet egg’d on by compulsion,
No wonder his nag tumbled into convulsion.
Ah ! had he but lost a fore shoe, or fell lame,
‘Twould only his sport have curtail’d, not his fame.
Loraine,2—than whom no one his game plays more safe,
Who the last to the first prefers seeing by half,—
What with nicking 3 and keeping a constant look-out,
Every turn of the scent surely turn’d to account.
The wonderful pluck of his horse surprised some,
But he knew they were making point blank for his
” Short home ” to be brought we all should desire,
Could we manage the trick like the Enderby Squire.4

Wild Shelley,5 at starting all ears and all eyes,
Who to get a good start all experiment tries,
Yet contrived it so ill, as to throw out poor Gipsy,6
Whom he rattled along as if he’d been tipsy,

1 Said to have threatened that he would beat the whole field.
2Mr. Loraine Smith.                      3 A term of reproach.
4Where Mr. Loraine Smith lives 5 Usually very grave.
6 Sir John Shelley’s mare.

To catch them again ; but, though famous for speed,
She never could touch1 them, much less get a lead.
So dishearten’d, disjointed, and beat, home he swings,
Not much unlike a fiddler hung upon strings.

An H. H.2 who in Leicestershire never had been,
So of course such a tickler ne’er could have seen,
Just to see them throw off, on a raw horse was mounted,
Who a hound had ne’er seen, nor a fence had confronted.
But they found in such style, and went off at such score,
That he could not resist the attempt to see more :
So with scrambling, and dashing, and one rattling fall,
He saw all the fun, up to Stretton’s white Hall.
There they anchor’d, in plight not a little distressing—
The horse being raw, he of course got a dressing.
That wonderful mare of Vanneck’s, who till now
By no chance ever tired, was taken in tow :
And what’s worse, she gave Van such a devilish jog
In the face with her head, plunging out of a bog,
That with eye black as ink, or as Edward’s famed Prince,
Half blind has he been, and quite deaf ever since.
But let that not mortify thee, Shackaback ; 3
She only was blown, and came home a rare hack.

There Craven too stopp’d, whose misfortune, not fault,
His mare unaccountably vex’d with string-halt ;
And when she had ceased thus spasmodic to prance,
Her mouth ‘gan to twitch with St. Vitus’s dance.

    1 Melton dialect for “overtake.”
    2 These initials may serve either for Hampshire hog or Hampshire
    3 A name taken from Blue Beard, and given to Mr. Vanneck by his
Melton friends.

But how shall described be the fate of Rose Price,
Whose fav’rite white gelding convey’d him so nice
Through thick and through thin, that he vow’d and
No money should part them, as long as life lasted ?
But the pace that effected which money could not :
For to part, and in death, was their no distant lot.
In a fatal blind ditch Carlo Khan’s2 powers fail’d,
Where nor lancet nor laudanum either avail’d.
More care of a horse than he took, could take no man ;
He’d more straw than would serve any lying-in woman.
Still he died !—yet just how, as nobody knows,
It may truly be said, he died ” under the Rose.”
At the death of poor Khan, Melton feels such remorse,
That they’ve christen’d that ditch, “The Vale of White

Thus ended a chase, which for distance and speed
It’s fellow we never have heard of or read.
Every species of ground ev’ry horse does not suit,
What’s a good country hunter may here prove a brute ;
And, unless for all sorts of strange fences prepared,
A man and his horse are sure to be scared.
This variety gives constant life to the chase ;
But as Forester says—” Sir, what KILLS, is the PACE.”
In most other countries they boast of their breed,
For carrying, at times, such a beautiful head ;
But these hounds to carry a head cannot fail,
And constantly too, for,—by George,—there’s no tail.
Talk of horses, and hounds, and the system of kennel,
Give me Leicestershire nags, and the hounds of Old Meynell!

     1 At the cover side a large sum was offered for it.
     2 Mr. Price’s horse.


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“Ours is an educational association organized for the benefit of the banking fraternity of the country and within our membership may be found on an equal basis both employees and employers; [...] Read more →

The Legacy of Felix de Weldon

Felix Weihs de Weldon, age 96, died broke in the year 2003 after successive bankruptcies and accumulating $4 million dollars worth of debt. Most of the debt was related to the high cost of love for a wife living with Alzheimer’s. Health care costs to maintain his first wife, Margot, ran $500 per [...] Read more →

The Stock Exchange Specialist

New York Stock Exchange Floor September 26,1963

The Specialist as a member of a stock exchange has two functions.’ He must execute orders which other members of an exchange may leave with him when the current market price is away from the price of the orders. By executing these orders on behalf [...] Read more →

Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport. Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally [...] Read more →

44 Berkeley Square

The Clermont Club

Reprint from London Bisnow/UK

At £23M, its sale is not the biggest property deal in the world. But the Clermont Club casino in Berkeley Square in London could lay claim to being the most significant address in modern finance — it is where the concept of what is today [...] Read more →

Proper Wines to Serve with Food

Foie gras with Sauternes, Photo by Laurent Espitallier

As an Appetizer

Pale dry Sherry, with or without bitters, chilled or not. Plain or mixed Vermouth, with or without bitters. A dry cocktail.

With Oysters, Clams or Caviar

A dry flinty wine such as Chablis, Moselle, Champagne. Home Top of [...] Read more →

Mocking Bird Food

Mocking Bird Food.

Hemp seed……….2 pounds Rape seed………. .1 pound Crackers………….1 pound Rice…………….1/4 pound Corn meal………1/4 pound Lard oil…………1/4 pound


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Abingdon, Berkshire in the Year of 1880

St.Helen’s on the Thames, photo by Momit


From a Dictionary of the Thames from Oxford to the Nore. 1880 by Charles Dickens

Abingdon, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 103 3/4miles, from Oxford 7 3/4 miles. A station on the Great Western Railway, from Paddington 60 miles. The time occupied [...] Read more →

Ought King Leopold to be Hanged?

King Leopold Butcher of the Congo

For the somewhat startling suggestion in the heading of this interview, the missionary interviewed is in no way responsible. The credit of it, or, if you like, the discredit, belongs entirely to the editor of the Review, who, without dogmatism, wishes to pose the question as [...] Read more →

A Few Wine Recipes

EIGHTEEN GALLONS is here give as a STANDARD for all the following Recipes, it being the most convenient size cask to Families. See A General Process for Making Wine

If, however, only half the quantity of Wine is to be made, it is but to divide the portions of [...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

King Arthur Legends, Myths, and Maidens

King Arthur, Legends, Myths & Maidens is a massive book of Arthurian legends. This limited edition paperback was just released on Barnes and Noble at a price of $139.00. Although is may seem a bit on the high side, it may prove to be well worth its price as there are only [...] Read more →

Horn Measurement

Jul. 23, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 65

Horn Measurements.

Editor Forest and Stream: “Record head.” How shamefully this term is being abused, especially in the past three years; or since the giant moose from Alaska made his appearance in public and placed all former records (so far as [...] Read more →

Cleaning Watch Chains

To Clean Watch Chains.

Gold or silver watch chains can be cleaned with a very excellent result, no matter whether they may be matt or polished, by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia; they are then rinsed in alcohol, and finally. shaken in clean sawdust, free from sand. [...] Read more →

Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events

In July of 1968, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), published NASA Technical Report TR R-277 titled Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events.

The catalog begins with the first entry dated November 26th, 1540 at ∼05h 00m:

Feature: Region of Calippus2 Description: Starlike appearance on dark side Observer: Observers at Worms Reference: [...] Read more →

Gold and Economic Freedom

by Alan Greenspan, 1967

An almost hysterical antagonism toward the gold standard is one issue which unites statists of all persuasions. They seem to sense-perhaps more clearly and subtly than many consistent defenders of laissez-faire — that gold and economic freedom are inseparable, that the gold standard is an instrument [...] Read more →

Harry Houdini Investigates the Spirit World

The magician delighted in exposing spiritualists as con men and frauds.

By EDMUND WILSON June 24, 1925

Houdini is a short strong stocky man with small feet and a very large head. Seen from the stage, his figure, with its short legs and its pugilist’s proportions, is less impressive than at close [...] Read more →

Carpet Cleaner Formulae

The Ardabil Carpet – Made in the town of Ardabil in north-west Iran, the burial place of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334. The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, ancestor of Shah Ismail, founder of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1722). While the exact origins of the carpet are unclear, it’s believed to have [...] Read more →

How Long is Your Yacht?

Dominion, Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club,Winner of Seawanhaka Cup, 1898.

The Tail Wags the Dog.

The following is a characteristic sample of those broad and liberal views on yachting which are the pride of the Boston Herald. Speaking of the coming races for the Seawanhaka international challenge cup, it says:

[...] Read more →

Salmon Caviar

Salmon and Sturgeon Caviar – Photo by Thor

Salmon caviar was originated about 1910 by a fisherman in the Maritime Provinces of Siberia, and the preparation is a modification of the sturgeon caviar method (Cobb 1919). Salomon caviar has found a good market in the U.S.S.R. and other European countries where it [...] Read more →

The Racing Knockabout Gosling

The Racing Knockabout Gosling.

Gosling was the winning yacht of 1897 in one of the best racing classes now existing in this country, the Roston knockabout class. The origin of this class dates back about six years, when Carl, a small keel cutter, was built for C. H. [...] Read more →

Mudlark Regulations in the U.K.

Mudlarks of London

Mudlarking along the Thames River foreshore is controlled by the Port of London Authority.

According to the Port of London website, two type of permits are issued for those wishing to conduct metal detecting, digging, or searching activities.

Standard – allows digging to a depth of 7.5 [...] Read more →

Commercial Tuna Salad Recipe

Tom Oates, aka Nabokov at en.wikipedia

No two commercial tuna salads are prepared by exactly the same formula, but they do not show the wide variety characteristic of herring salad. The recipe given here is typical. It is offered, however, only as a guide. The same recipe with minor variations to suit [...] Read more →

What is the Meaning of the Term Thorough-bred Fox-hound

Reprint from the Sportsman Cabinet and Town & Country Magazine, Vol.1, Number 1, November 1832.

MR. Editor,

Will you allow me to inquire, through the medium of your pages, the correct meaning of the term thorough-bred fox-hound? I am very well aware, that the expression is in common [...] Read more →

Making Apple Cider Vinegar

The greatest cause of failure in vinegar making is carelessness on the part of the operator. Intelligent separation should be made of the process into its various steps from the beginning to end.


The apples should be clean and ripe. If not clean, undesirable fermentations [...] Read more →

Napoleon’s Pharmacists


Of the making of books about Napoleon there is no end, and the centenary of his death (May 5) is not likely to pass without adding to the number, but a volume on Napoleon”s pharmacists still awaits treatment by the student in this field of historical research. There [...] Read more →

Protecting Rare Books: How to Build a Silverfish Trap

Silverfish damage to book – photo by Micha L. Rieser

The beauty of hunting silverfish is that they are not the most clever of creatures in the insect kingdom.

Simply take a small clean glass jar and wrap it in masking tape. The masking tape gives the silverfish something to [...] Read more →

Country Cabbage and Pea Soup

Add the following ingredients to a four or six quart crock pot, salt & pepper to taste keeping in mind that salt pork is just that, cover with water and cook on high till it boils, then cut back to low for four or five hours. A slow cooker works well, I [...] Read more →

Shooting in Wet Weather


Reprint from The Sportsman’s Cabinet and Town and Country Magazine, Vol I. Dec. 1832, Pg. 94-95

To the Editor of the Cabinet.


Possessing that anxious feeling so common among shooters on the near approach of the 12th of August, I honestly confess I was not able [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Setting Fox Traps

Aug. 13, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 125

Game Bag and Gun.

Indian Modes of Hunting. III.—Foxes.

The fox as a rule is a most wily animal, and numerous are the stories of his cunning toward the Indian hunter with his steel traps.

The Charge of the Light Brigade

Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!” he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Home Top of [...] Read more →

A Creative Approach to Saving Ye Olde Cassette Tapes

Quite possibly, the most agonizing decision being made by Baby Boomers across the nation these days is what to do with all that vintage Hi-fi equipment and boxes full of classic rock and roll cassettes and 8-Tracks.

I faced this dilemma head-on this past summer as I definitely wanted in [...] Read more →

Some Notes on American Ship Worms

July 9, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 25

Some Notes on American Ship-Worms.

[Read before the American Fishes Congress at Tampa.]

While we wish to preserve and protect most of the products of our waters, these creatures we would gladly obliterate from the realm of living things. For [...] Read more →

How to Make Money – Insurance

Life insurance certificate issued by the Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company to Samuel Holt, Liverpool, England, 1851. On display at the British Museum in London. Donated by the ifs School of Finance. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor [...] Read more →

Gout Remedies

Jan Verkolje Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe gout or uric acid crystals 1679.

For one suffering gout, the following vitamins, herbs, and extracts may be worth looking into:

Vitamin C Folic Acid – Folic Acid is a B vitamin and is also known as B9 – [Known food [...] Read more →

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Translated into English by PANCHAM SINH

Panini Office, Allahabad [1914]


There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves [...] Read more →

The Intaglio Processes for Audubon’s Birds of America

Notes on the intaglio processes of the most expensive book on birds available for sale in the world today.

The Audubon prints in “The Birds of America” were all made from copper plates utilizing four of the so called “intaglio” processes, engraving, etching, aquatint, and drypoint. Intaglio [...] Read more →

Indian Mode of Hunting – Beaver

Jul. 30, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 87

Indian Mode of Hunting.


Wa-sa-Kejic came over to the post early one October, and said his boy had cut his foot, and that he had no one to steer his canoe on a proposed beaver hunt. Now [...] Read more →

British Craftsmanship is Alive and Well

The Queen Elizabeth Trust, or QEST, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of British craftsmanship through the funding of scholarships and educational endeavours to include apprenticeships, trade schools, and traditional university classwork. The work of QEST is instrumental in keeping alive age old arts and crafts such as masonry, glassblowing, shoemaking, [...] Read more →

The Preparation of Marketable Vinegar

It is unnecessary to point out that low-grade fruit may often be used to advantage in the preparation of vinegar. This has always been true in the case of apples and may be true with other fruit, especially grapes. The use of grapes for wine making is an outlet which [...] Read more →