A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World  by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A. 

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning croak is usually uttered long before an expectant fowler has approached within several hundred yards of its nesting haunt. But even the bird of darkness is sometimes worsted by the craft of its human enemies. The modern Greenlander destroys the Raven with a shot-gun. His ancestors were content to kill the Raven by simpler means. Their most common device was to snare the bird with a running noose. A hole was dug in the snow and filled with carrion. A running snare, made of sealskin or of whalebone, was then spread around the orifice. The hungry bird naturally endeavoured to secure the bait, and became entangled in the snare. Another plan was for the fowler to make a hole in the snow large enough to contain himself. He then crouched down in the cavity, concealed from the Raven’s keen vision by a light covering of snow. The carrion intended to attract the bird was also placed on the crust of the snow. The Raven descended into the pit to feed, when he found himself taken by the hands of the concealed fowler. Bailly tells us that the Raven is sometimes snared in Savoy, but this only happens during severe weather. The Swiss method is to attach some strong snares (” gros lacets “) to a lump of meat, which is then exposed in the haunts of these birds. I once knew a Cumbrian raven to lose his liberty by entering a ” Deadfall.” The trap had been set by a fell-side farmer in the hope of securing a fox.

In civilised Europe, the plan of capturing Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) or Carrion Crows (Corvus corone) by means of paper cones, smeared with birdlime, was held to be an excellent amusement for ladies and gentlemen to engage in when they met together. Bergantini tells us, in a footnote to the ” L’Uccellatura a vischio” of Bargaeus, that this plan of Crow-catching was practised at Friuli, at Bergamo, and in some other places. He men tions in particular that ” II Patrizio Veneto Riguardevolissimo Sebastano Marcello” adopted it as a mode of entertaining his guests. A large number of gallants and ladies (” molti Cavalieri e Dame”) met together at the villa of their host at Campalto in the middle of October. A carcase had been exposed in the open air for a few days, prior to their arrival, in order to attract a large number of carrion-loving birds. The Crows and perhaps Ravens flocked to the welcome sight from the country round. (” In pochi giorni gia vi convennero da lontanissime parti infinita di Corvi e Cornacchie.”) The evening before the fowling was to commence, a number of paper cones were baited with small pieces of meat and coated inside with birdlime. The guests rose at daylight to see the birds return to the carcase. The greedy Crows readily inserted their heads into the sticky traps. Finding their sight blinded by their unwelcome head-gear, they soared up into the sky until the eye could no longer follow them. The poor things dropped, however, on the ground in the very space from which they had started upon their lofty flight. It was not the sort of fowling that we should tolerate, but the Italians evidently thought it capital fun.

The Rook (Corvus frugilcgus) seems to have established an evil reputation in Italy. Crescentius tells how these birds should be captured by means of limed twigs placed on the upper branches of a tree. The birds are attracted to the vicinity by the exhibition of a tame Eagle Owl,  or some other species of Owl. They naturally alight in the tree beneath which the object of their detestation is secured, and thus forfeit their liberty. Di Valli gives a characteristic engraving of this kind of sport. Savi observes that the usual plan of destroying Rooks is to fix a live decoy of their own kind on the top of some tree which happens to be situated in the line of flight adopted by these birds. The gunner waits in a small hut made of the boughs of trees. When the wild Rooks settle within gunshot, he rakes their clustering masses. The Rook is only a winter visitor to the north of Italy, but Savi considered that this bird inflicted great injury upon the agriculturist. It not only devours a great deal of newly sown corn, but strips the olive trees of their valuable fruit. At the present time there seems to be a feeling in England that the damage which the Rook accomplishes is counterbalanced by the quantity of noxious insects which it devours in the summer time. In former days, a less compromising attitude was adopted by our legislators. In Scotland, an Act was passed as early as the year 1457, ordering the extermination of ” Ruk,” of ” Crawys,” and other ” foulys of reif.” It was not until 1533 that the English Parliament resorted to legislation to check the excessive numbers of these birds. The engine prescribed to be kept in use by every parish was the ordinary Day-net or Clap-net, then in use for catching a variety of birds. The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) and the Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) were outlawed as well as the Rook, the Daw being described by the title of ” Chough.” This is a very ancient English name for the Jackdaw. In our time the name has come to be applied almost exclusively in common parlance to the Cornish Chough (Pyrrhocoraz graculus). But Turner, who had studied the English names of birds, expressly distinguishes the latter species as ” A Cornish Choughe.” Gesner, too, distinctly says that the ” Monedula ” or Jackdaw was known in England as the ” Caddo, Chough, or Ka.” Others dubbed the Jackdaw as “Dawe, Choughe, Cadesse.” I cannot discover any trustworthy evidence that the ” Cornix Cornubiae ” was recognised by Shakespeare or any other Elizabethan writer as the Chough of the vernacular speech. Such evidence as is at present available satisfies me that the Jackdaw was the bird proscribed by the English Parliament. At all events the fate of the birds was sealed at Westminster. The inhabitants of every parish were left to carry out the doom pronounced against the whole race of ” Crows,” under penalty. A fine of ten shillings was to be exacted  from all recusant parishes, until the requirements of the Act were carried out. A later statute of Elizabeth, passed in 1566, entitled “An Act for the Preservation of Grain,” revived the crusade against the Corvidæ, by authorising the churchwardens to pay head-money for the destruction of such birds. I have not discovered any old entries of moneys expended for the cost or repair of Crow-nets, but have given elsewhere many particulars of the pains once taken to kill Ravens in the Lake district. In working through the parish books of the large and mountainous parish of Greystoke, I ascertained that a total score of 966 Ravens were accounted for by the wardens during a period of ninety years ; from Midsummer 1752 to Midsummer 1842. It would seem that most of the birds thus accounted for had been taken from their nests by the adventurous youths of the district (Cf. A Fauna of Lakeland, p. 156 et seq.) But Mr J. E. Harting has succeeded in showing that the Crownet was supplied in some parishes according to statute. He states that the Churchwarden’s Accounts of South Cadbury, Somerset, contain the following items :—

” 1592 imprimis a Rooks nett ….. js.
1625 imprimis a Rooks nett ……
1627 For mending the Rook nett js. vjd.”
(Zool. 1894, P- 49 )

Markham tells us that the great net, commonly called the Crow-net, differed nothing from the Plover-net, unless the owner chose to have a larger net for Crow-catching. That the bird for whose capture the net was chiefly used was the Rook is evidenced by the instructions which Markham supplies as to laying the net : ” before or neere unto Barne doores where Come is a thrashing, or in any such places where Corne hath been winnowed and the chaff remaining, with which you shall ever observe to cover and hide the Net assoone as it is laid, so as it may not be seen, and then assoone as the flocks of birds come, and are scraping amongst the chaffe, you lying aloof off conceald, with the coard in your hand, shall sodenly draw it and overturne the net upon the birds, by which at one pull you may take may (sic) Crowes, pigeons, Kites, Buzzards, and such like ravenous birdes.” As an alternative, the Crow-net might be set ” in any stubble field upon the Corn lands, provided the stubble cover the Net so as it be not perceived” (Hunger’s Prevention, p. 91).

It is curious to observe that the exceptional methods adopted to protect the interests of the British farmer in the sixteenth century attracted the notice of our Continental neighbours. Gesner, writing about 1555, notices that Rooks were so abundant in Britain that it had been decided to offer rewards for their destruction, on account of the havoc which they wrought upon the corn fields. The Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) too seldom strays to the shores of Great Britain to be captured by any insular device. Among the solitudes of its native pine woods, in the mountainous parts of Northern and Central Europe, the ” Cassenoix ” occasionally falls a victim to imprudence, and is taken in a snare. Bailly states that large droves of Nutcrackers sometimes arrive in Savoy, and that the birds are so exhausted that they cannot take good care of themselves. They are therefore easily taken in the snare (” Piège “) which is commonly set for Thrushes (Grives). Gloersen states that in Norway the Nutcracker must be included among the various species of birds which are casually snared in the ” Donerne ” intended for Fieldfares and other species of Thrushes. ” Several Nutcrackers,” he writes, ” are generally caught every year, either when feasting on the service berries, or when wanting to take a bird already noosed. In the latter case, the Nutcracker is found hanging together with the Thrush, a comrade in misery, being snared by the second noose ” (Dyreliv I Norge, p. 202). It happens at rare intervals that an odd bird of this species is taken almost by accident, in one or other of the ” Roccolos ” which are kept up for catching Thrushes in the passes of the Italian Alps. In 1868 two examples of the ” Nocciolaja ” or Nutcracker were netted in a ” Roccolo ” at Brianza, in the province of Como (Avifauna Italica, Vol. Iv. p. 442). The Magpie (Pica rustica) is too crafty to be easily taken in the nets of the fowler. Nevertheless, it has often been outwitted by the wiles exercised for its destruction. ” If you take a quick and lively Magpie, and lay her on the ground upon her back in such sort that her wings be fastened to the earth, the stir and noise she will make will call many other Magpies about her, which lighting upon her (as it were to succour or relieve her), she will hold the first that comes fast with her claws till you may come and take her. This you may pin down by the other in like manner, and so you may do until you have taken a great number of these birds. The best time for this is when they pair ” (A Cavalier’s Note Book, p. 21). The device just mentioned has been described by many writers, from the fourteenth century downwards. Some of their  number advise that it should be adopted as a means of securing other birds of the same family—the Jay (Garrulus glandarius), for example. But we must not forget that Leonard Mascall tells us of ” A pretie way to take a Pye.” ” Ye shall lime a small threede, a foote long or more, and then tie one end about a peece of flesh so bigge as shee may flie away withall : and at the other end of the threed, tie a shoe buckle, and lay the flesh on a post, and let the threede hang downe, and when she flies away with it, the threede with the buckle will wrapped round her, and then she will fall, so ye may take them (A Booke of Fishing, reprint, p. 49). We are likewise indebted to Mascall for a description of ” the Jay trappe to set about come fields or orchards.” It bears a close resemblance to the snare employed in Poland to catch Fieldfares.

Jay Trap

The English trap was, however, more substantial than the Polish trap ; being made ” with a poale of seven or eight inches about, and seven or eight foote long or hie, set fast in the ground, about your wheate or other fruite. There is made in the saide poale two hoales, one beneath and the other above : in the nether most hole there is a spring wand let fast there and bowed into the hole above, which hole ye shall put throwe a string, fast to the end of the spring wand, with a knot thereon, to stay it that it shall not slippe backe againe. Also on the fore side of the hole ye must put a blunt pinne of woode with a round ende of seven or eight inches long, set loosely in by the knot to stay the string, which pinne ye shall see cloven in the middest, and in that cleft they use to put a cherie or wheateare for a baite. Then shall yee spread finely, and lay the string aboute on the saide shorte pinne, and your string to have a running noose. Also the trappe of your stake must be sharpe that no foule may light thereon. And when any lights on the short pinne to catch the baite, it falls down, and the string thereon takes them by the leggs. Thus ye may set many such about your grounds. Ye may make those trappes on boughs in trees to take them at all times of the year if ye list.” Professor Newton reports of the Siberian Jay (Perisoreus infaustus), as observed in Lapland, that there is no difficulty in snaring as many live specimens as can be desired. Schrenck reports that the natives of Eastern Siberia very commonly keep tame Jays in their huts. He adds that these birds are often captured in the snares set for Sables, which are baited with fish. A German device of catching Jays and many other birds is to employ a tame Owl to attract the birds to a fowling-tree, which has been lopped of many of its branches, and carefully trimmed (as shown in the headpiece of this chapter). Numerous limed twigs are set upon the pruned branches which remain, so arranged as to offer convenient perches for any Jays that may be lured to the spot. The tree generally selected for this purpose is a pine tree, a tree that stands in an open space a few yards from its fellows. The fowler often lops off the smaller branches from the surrounding trees, so as to make a circle of bare boughs, to which he secures his limed twigs (” Leimruthen “). Under the central tree he builds a hut of the branches which have been cut off the trees, to form the ” Heherhütte.” This cabin is built of the necessary size to contain the fowler and his companions. A live Owl, or, in default of such a decoy, the skin of a Hare (Hasenbalg) is placed on the top of the ” Heherhütte,” or Jay-hut. The fowler commences operations at dawn, and the sport lasts until nine or ten in the forenoon. The number of limed twigs employed varies from 80 to 100. The birdcatcher calls the wild birds together by means of a bird-whistle (” Wichtelpfeise “). This is made with a piece of cherry bark. The fowler imitates the cry of an Owl. When the Jays recognise the challenge of what they suppose to be their hereditary enemy the Owl, they begin to scold, and thus excite the neighbourhood. Many other woodland birds assemble to unite in blaming the Owl. The Jays are prominent in their protests, and soon fly into the tree, beneath which their object of their opprobrium is tethered. As soon as the Jays come into contact with the limed twigs, they become incapacitated for flight, and tumble helpless to the ground.

The Italians are adepts at capturing the Jay, as well as a variety of other birds, by the system just described. It is called the ” Chioccolo,’ ” Fistierella,” or ” Fraschetta ” in Italy. This system owes its name of ” Chioccolo ” to the whistle which is employed to attract the birds to the fowler. This, says Savi, is the same whistle which the fowler uses to imitate the chuckle of the Blackbird. It is a metal bird-call of small size. The Tuscan birdcatcher selects the scene of his fowling operations in the centre of some copse, at a moderate distance from a few large trees. Having decided upon the spot, he sets to work to build his hut (” Capannello “). This is supported by two or three tall saplings eight or nine feet in height. The fowler cuts other branches in the vicinity and uses them to make a tiny wattled hut of green leaves, just large enough to conceal his person from the sharp eyes of the Jays, and other birds which he hopes to capture. He then removes the underwood and small branches for some little distance around the hut. The larger branches indeed are left, but only to be bent into the shape that best answers the requirements of the fowler. These branches are garnished with limed twigs. The fowler makes it his business to see that no bough or perch (” Postajo “) is left without its limed twig. The Italian fowler begins to whistle with the ” Chioccolo,” either when the birds are leaving the woods to go and feed in the fields and orchards in the early morning, or when they are returning in the evening. All the birds in the vicinity mistake the prolonged and monotonous whistle for the call of an Owl. Twittering and chattering, they all draw near to the spot from which the unwonted sound proceeds. Even those that are too distant to hear the call of the birdcatcher recognise the shrieking of their fellows. They hasten to join in mobbing the imaginary intruder. The Jays, Blackbirds, Long-tailed Tits, and Chaffinches are usually the first to arrive and to spread the alarm through the wood, all agitated and curious, keeping their tails and wings in perpetual motion. As the Jays see nothing of their enemy, they draw closer and closer to the fowler’s hut, until at last they alight on the limed twigs. These, being lightly poised, readily drop to the ground, carrying the fluttering birds along with them. The cries of the victims only serve to whet the curiosity of the birds that are still free. Far from taking warning by the fate of their brethren, they hurry to the same miserable fate. Selivanovski describes the method of taking Jays and other forest birds in Russia as being similar to the methods adopted in other parts of Continental Europe.

Russian system seems to approximate most closely to the French ” Pipe”e.” The fowler is advised to choose a single tree for the purpose of fowling. It must not be so tall as to be exposed to the wind. In Russia the oak is considered the most suitable tree, because its branches are disposed symmetrically. This fact facilitates the task of the birdcatcher in setting his limed twigs. The ends of the uppermost branches must be lopped off. Were they retained, birds of prey would probably perch upon them and thus frighten the smaller birds away. If the tree selected proves difficult to climb, another tree may be cut down and moored to the first, instead of a ladder. When the fowler trims the superfluous branches from the decoy tree, he is advised to cut slits in the remaining branches to receive the limed twigs. The Russian birdcatcher prepares his hut of green boughs or, if necessary, of fir branches, eked out with brushwood. The Russian fowler climbs up into the decoy tree, bearing as large a bundle of limed twigs as he is able to carry. These are inserted into the clefts which have been left for that purpose in the branches. Other and longer twigs covered with birdlime are fixed as hoops in the ground around the fatal tree. When all the needful details have been attended to, the birdcatcher takes a live Owl and tethers it by a string to the top of the fowling hut. In default of a live decoy, the aid of a stuffed specimen is called in. The fowler then hides in his hut and begins to challenge the wild Jays and other birds by calling with a bird-whistle. The French ” Pipee ” hardly differs from the devices just described, except perhaps in the care which is taken to prepare an elaborate series of paths around the fowler’s hut. This sport derived its name from the ” Pipeau ” or bird-call employed by the French fowler.

The ” Solitaire Inventiv ” suggests two forms of bird-calls for the use of the ” Pipée.” Of these the first, and no doubt the most primitive, is to hold a piece of a species of couch-grass in the right hand, between the forefinger and thumb, and then to insert the edge of the leaf between the lips of the fowler. The operator gently presses the lips together, and blows softly, thus imitating the cry of an Owl. But the birdcatcher needs to arouse the anger of the wild birds by simulating the cries of birds that appear to be denouncing the presence of the Owl. He requires for that purpose the ” Appeau à frouer,” of which the simplest pattern consists of an ivy leaf. The couch-grass, according to Buliard, requires to be prepared by being steeped in vinegar. The ivy leaf is used without any such treatment.

The ” Solitaire Inventiv ” advises the birdcatcher to take an ivy leaf and pierce a hole as large as a pea in the centre of the leaf. The leaf is then rolled into the form of a tiny, spiral cone, the small end of which is placed as a bird-whistle in the mouth of the fowler. When the fowler blows through this little instrument, he mimics the cries of a party of Jays which are mobbing an Owl. Both Buliard and the ” Solitaire Inventiv ” dwell on the desirability of the ” Appeau à frouer,” to supplement the cry of the Owl imitated with the  ” Chiendent ” or couch-grass. Various ingenious bird-calls have been invented by the wit of the French birdcatchers to serve as ” Pipeaux ” and ” Appeaux à frouer ; ” but these have only been grafted upon the original plan of utilising common plants as bird-calls. As for the exercise of the ” Pipée,” the ” Solitaire Inventiv ” regarded it as only to be used when the birds were eating the grapes in the vineyards. Buliard distinguishes three sorts of ” Pipées ” : ” les pipées prématurées, les pipdées de saison, et les pipées tardives.” The first of these was practised when the wild cherries (” Merises “) ripened ; many birds were then rearing their latest broods, and their flesh was of poor quality. The ” pipées de saison ” were those recognised by the ” Solitaire Inventiv ” in the season of grapes. This was the best time to catch Thrushes and Redbreasts, which were then in prime condition. The ” pipées tardives ” took place in the month of November, when many Jays were taken, but very few Redbreasts. The ” Pipée ” ceased to be effective when frosty weather set in.

Buliard and the ” Solitaire Inventiv ” agree in the instructions which they give as to preparing a tree for the ” Pipée ” by trimming off the superfluous branches, and setting limed twigs in the necessary positions. Both authorities recommend that the fowling hut should be built of branches, and placed at the base of the tree which is chosen as the centre of the ” Pipée.” The ” Solitaire Inventiv ” declares that the fowler must make five or six open spaces (” Clairières “) at certain distances around the hut. These are set apart to receive certain supplementary branches, which are covered with birdlime. Buliard extends the same idea. He arranges that the fowling hut should be encircled by three avenues, which again are crossed by five or more transverse paths. The first and broadest of the circular avenues (A) measures six or seven feet in depth, and surrounds the hut; the second (B) is only three feet across ; while the third (C) measures four feet or more across.

The fowler cuts a number of perches (“Plians”); which he arranges in the avenues about the hut. These rods vary in size, but all serve the same purpose, viz., that of carrying limed twigs. The ” Solitaire Inventiv ” assures us that the first bird to arrive at the fowlingtree is the ” Roitelet ” or Wren, followed by the Redbreast, and then by the Titmice. After the Tits come the Chaffinches, and then the Jays, which are bold in their endeavour to mob the supposed Owl. The French adopt the cruel expedient of breaking the wing of the first Jay taken. Its cries serve to whet the curiosity of its free brethren and thus facilitate their capture. The diversion of the ” Pipée ” commences at daybreak, and lasts until eight in the forenoon.

The numerous species of Birds of Paradise (Paradiseida) supplied as skins to the European markets inhabit such remote regions that very few Englishmen have hitherto been conversant with the habits of the birds, or the means by which their capture is usually effected. It is the fact that Birds of Paradise are shot with blunt arrows in the Aru Islands, and also, according to Mr R. Wallace, in some parts of New Guinea ; but it is equally certain that these beautiful birds are often obtained by the Plan of medium of snares. When Mr Wallace visited the island of Waigou in 1860, he made arrangements with the native birdcatchers to amply supply him with fresh-killed Birds of Paradise. A number of specimens were brought to him, and he discovered that the Red Bird of Paradise (Paradisea rubra) is obtained by a snare similar to that with which the Maori fowler is so conversant. ” A large climbing Arum bears a red reticulated fruit, of which the birds are very fond. The hunters fasten this fruit on a stout forked stick, and provide themselves with a fine, but strong, cord. They then seek out some tree in the forest on which these birds are accustomed to perch, and, climbing up it, fasten the stick to a branch, and arrange the cord in a noose so ingeniously that when the bird comes to eat the fruit its legs are caught, and by pulling the end of the cord, which hangs down to the ground, it comes free from the branch and brings down the bird. Sometimes when food is abundant elsewhere the hunter sits from morning till night under his tree with the cord in his hand, and even for two or three whole days in succession, without getting a bite ; while, on the other hand, if very lucky, he may get two or three birds in a day.”

The device just described was only known to eight or ten men in Waigou when Wallace explored that island (The Malay Archipelago, p.534). A widely different plan of capturing Birds of Paradise is followed in the south-east promontory of British New Guinea. Mr J. P. Thompson reports that the Birds of Paradise usually congregate upon a favourite tree, called in sporting parlance ” the dancing tree,” to exhibit their gorgeous plumage by numerous elegant motions towards one another. ” The mountain natives make use of a very clever device for catching these beautiful birds by trapping. The most favourable place in the jungle is selected, and a clearing made, about thirty feet wide at one end, and gradually converging to a point like the letter V, where it terminates in a framework constructed of saplings crossing one another at intervals, and supported by their ends to two suitable trees. This structure is then perfected by attaching numbers of snares thereto, so placed as to trap the unwary birds in their flight through the tempting opening in the jungle ” (Ibis., 1893, p. 274).

[The engraving of the German ” Jay-hut,” which forms the headpiece of this chapter, has been reproduced from Arten von Viögeln.]


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Carpenters’ Furniture

IT requires a far search to gather up examples of furniture really representative in this kind, and thus to gain a point of view for a prospect into the more ideal where furniture no longer is bought to look expensively useless in a boudoir, but serves everyday and commonplace need, such as [...] Read more →

Mudlark Regulations in the U.K.

Mudlarks of London

Mudlarking along the Thames River foreshore is controlled by the Port of London Authority.

According to the Port of London website, two type of permits are issued for those wishing to conduct metal detecting, digging, or searching activities.

Standard – allows digging to a depth of 7.5 [...] Read more →

English Fig Wine

Take the large blue figs when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine.

Then slice some other figs and let them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced [...] Read more →

Antibiotic Properties of Jungle Soil

If ever it could be said that there is such a thing as miracle healing soil, Ivan Sanderson said it best in his 1965 book entitled Ivan Sanderson’s Book of Great Jungles.

Sanderson grew up with a natural inclination towards adventure and learning. He hailed from Scotland but spent much [...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

The Racing Knockabout Gosling

The Racing Knockabout Gosling.

Gosling was the winning yacht of 1897 in one of the best racing classes now existing in this country, the Roston knockabout class. The origin of this class dates back about six years, when Carl, a small keel cutter, was built for C. H. [...] Read more →

Indian Mode of Hunting – Beaver

Jul. 30, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 87

Indian Mode of Hunting.


Wa-sa-Kejic came over to the post early one October, and said his boy had cut his foot, and that he had no one to steer his canoe on a proposed beaver hunt. Now [...] Read more →

The Charge of the Light Brigade

Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!” he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Home Top of [...] Read more →

Artist Methods

Como dome facade – Pliny the Elder – Photo by Wolfgang Sauber

Work in Progress…


Every substance may be considered as a varnish, which, when applied to the surface of a solid body, gives it a permanent lustre. Drying oil, thickened by exposure to the sun’s heat or [...] Read more →

Copper Kills Covid-19 and the Sun is Your Friend

The element copper effectively kills viruses and bacteria.

Therefore it would reason and I will assert and not only assert but lay claim to the patents for copper mesh stints to be inserted in the arteries of patients presenting with severe cases of Covid-19 with a slow release dosage of [...] Read more →

Sir Joshua Reynolds – Notes from Rome

“The Leda, in the Colonna palace, by Correggio, is dead-coloured white and black, with ultramarine in the shadow ; and over that is scumbled, thinly and smooth, a warmer tint,—I believe caput mortuum. The lights are mellow ; the shadows blueish, but mellow. The picture is painted on panel, in [...] Read more →

Something about Caius College, Cambridge

Gate of Honour, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius

Gonville & Caius College, known as Caius and pronounced keys was founded in 1348 by Edmund Gonville, the Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk. The first name was thus Goville Hall and it was dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. [...] Read more →

Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois and the Dulwich Picture Gallery

Noel Desenfans and Sir Francis Bourgeois, circa 1805 by Paul Sandby, watercolour on paper

The Dulwich Picture Gallery was England’s first purpose-built art gallery and considered by some to be England’s first national gallery. Founded by the bequest of Sir Peter Francis Bourgois, dandy, the gallery was built to display his vast [...] Read more →

A Summer Memory


Here, where these low lush meadows lie, We wandered in the summer weather, When earth and air and arching sky, Blazed grandly, goldenly together.

And oft, in that same summertime, We sought and roamed these self-same meadows, When evening brought the curfew chime, And peopled field and fold with shadows.

I mind me [...] Read more →

Public Attitudes Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an overwhelming majority [...] Read more →

Beef Jerky



Slice 5 pounds lean beef (flank steak or similar cut) into strips 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick, 1 to 2 inches wide, and 4 to 12 inches long. Cut with grain of meat; remove the fat. Lay out in a single layer on a smooth clean surface (use [...] Read more →

Commercial Fried Fish Cake Recipe

Dried Norwegian Salt Cod

Fried fish cakes are sold rather widely in delicatessens and at prepared food counters of department stores in the Atlantic coastal area. This product has possibilities for other sections of the country.


Home Top of [...] Read more →

The Apparatus of the Stock Market


The components of any given market place include both physical structures set up to accommodate trading, and participants to include buyers, sellers, brokers, agents, barkers, pushers, auctioneers, agencies, and propaganda outlets, and banking or transaction exchange facilities.

Markets are generally set up by sellers as it is in their [...] Read more →

Chantry Chapels

William Wyggeston’s chantry house, built around 1511, in Leicester: The building housed two priests, who served at a chantry chapel in the nearby St Mary de Castro church. It was sold as a private dwelling after the dissolution of the chantries.

A Privately Built Chapel

Chantry, chapel, generally within [...] Read more →

Books Condemned to be Burnt








WHEN did books first come to be burnt in England by the common hangman, and what was [...] Read more →

Historical Uses of Arsenic

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

The First Pineapple Grown in England

First Pineapple Grown in England

Click here to read an excellent article on the history of pineapple growing in the UK.

Should one be interested in serious mass scale production, click here for scientific resources.

Growing pineapples in the UK.

The video below demonstrates how to grow pineapples in Florida.

[...] Read more →

Fresh Water Angling – The Two Crappies


July 2, 1898 Forest and Stream,

Fresh-Water Angling. No. IX.—The Two Crappies. BY FRED MATHER.

Fishing In Tree Tops.

Here a short rod, say 8ft., is long enough, and the line should not be much longer than the rod. A reel is not [...] Read more →

Chinese Duck Cooking – A Few Recipes

Chen Lin, Water fowl, in Cahill, James. Ge jiang shan se (Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368, Taiwan edition). Taipei: Shitou chubanshe fen youxian gongsi, 1994. pl. 4:13, p. 180. Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. scroll, light colors on paper, 35.7 x 47.5 cm


Blunderbuss Mai Tai Recipe

Blackbeard’s Jolly Roger

If you’re looking for that most refreshing of summertime beverages for sipping out on the back patio or perhaps as a last drink before walking the plank, let me recommend my Blunderbuss Mai Tai. I picked up the basics to this recipe over thirty years ago when holed up [...] Read more →

Country Cabbage and Pea Soup

Add the following ingredients to a four or six quart crock pot, salt & pepper to taste keeping in mind that salt pork is just that, cover with water and cook on high till it boils, then cut back to low for four or five hours. A slow cooker works well, I [...] Read more →

Art Fraud

A la Russie, aux ânes et aux autres – by Chagall – 1911

Marc Chagall is one of the most forged artists on the planet. Mark Rothko fakes also abound. According to available news reports, the art market is littered with forgeries of their work. Some are even thought to be [...] Read more →

Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

Mortlake Tapestries at Chatsworth House

Click here to learn more about the Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

The Mortlake Tapestries were founded by Sir Francis Crane.

From the Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 13

Crane, Francis by William Prideaux Courtney

CRANE, Sir FRANCIS (d. [...] Read more →

A Couple of Classic Tennessee Squirrel Recipes


3-4 Young Squirrels, dressed and cleaned 1 tsp. Morton Salt or to taste 1 tsp. McCormick Black Pepper or to taste 1 Cup Martha White All Purpose Flour 1 Cup Hog Lard – Preferably fresh from hog killing, or barbecue table

Cut up three to [...] Read more →

The Preparation of Marketable Vinegar

It is unnecessary to point out that low-grade fruit may often be used to advantage in the preparation of vinegar. This has always been true in the case of apples and may be true with other fruit, especially grapes. The use of grapes for wine making is an outlet which [...] Read more →

Mocking Bird Food

Mocking Bird Food.

Hemp seed……….2 pounds Rape seed………. .1 pound Crackers………….1 pound Rice…………….1/4 pound Corn meal………1/4 pound Lard oil…………1/4 pound


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Producing and Harvesting Tobacco Seed

THE FIRST step in producing a satisfactory crop of tobacco is to use good seed that is true to type. The grower often can save his own seed to advantage, if he wants to.

Before topping is done, he should go over the tobacco field carefully to pick [...] Read more →

Blackberry Wine


5 gallons of blackberries 5 pound bag of sugar

Fill a pair of empty five gallon buckets half way with hot soapy water and a ¼ cup of vinegar. Wash thoroughly and rinse.

Fill one bucket with two and one half gallons of blackberries and crush with [...] Read more →

Palermo Wine

Take to every quart of water one pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day. You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it [...] Read more →

Tuna Record


July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 11

The Tuna Record.

Avalon. Santa Catalina Island. Southern California, June 16.—Editor Forest and Stream: Several years ago the writer in articles on the “Game Fishes of the Pacific Slope,” in [...] Read more →

The English Tradition of Woodworking

THE sense of a consecutive tradition has so completely faded out of English art that it has become difficult to realise the meaning of tradition, or the possibility of its ever again reviving; and this state of things is not improved by the fact that it is due to uncertainty of purpose, [...] Read more →

How to Distinguish Fishes


Sept. 3, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 188-189

How to Distinguish Fishes.

BY FRED MATHER. The average angler knows by sight all the fish which he captures, but ask him to describe one and he is puzzled, and will get off on the color of the fish, which is [...] Read more →

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Translated into English by PANCHAM SINH

Panini Office, Allahabad [1914]


There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves [...] Read more →

Valentine Poetry from the Cotswold Explorer


There is nothing more delightful than a great poetry reading to warm ones heart on a cold winter night fireside. Today is one of the coldest Valentine’s days on record, thus, nothing could be better than listening to the resonant voice of Robin Shuckbrugh, The Cotswold [...] Read more →

A Few Wine Recipes

EIGHTEEN GALLONS is here give as a STANDARD for all the following Recipes, it being the most convenient size cask to Families. See A General Process for Making Wine

If, however, only half the quantity of Wine is to be made, it is but to divide the portions of [...] Read more →

U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act – Full Text

WIPO HQ Geneva


TITLE I – PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION OFFICE Chapter Section 1. Organization and Publications . 1 2. Legal Provisions as to the Plant Variety Protection Office . 21 3. Plant Variety Protection Fees . 31


Harry Houdini Investigates the Spirit World

The magician delighted in exposing spiritualists as con men and frauds.

By EDMUND WILSON June 24, 1925

Houdini is a short strong stocky man with small feet and a very large head. Seen from the stage, his figure, with its short legs and its pugilist’s proportions, is less impressive than at close [...] Read more →

Cleaner for Gilt Picture Frames

Cleaner for Gilt Frames.

Calcium hypochlorite…………..7 oz. Sodium bicarbonate……………7 oz. Sodium chloride………………. 2 oz. Distilled water…………………12 oz.


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

The Standard Navy Cutter and a Whale Boat Design

Dec. 24, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 513-514

The Standard Navy Boats.

Above we find,

The accompanying illustrations show further details of the standard navy boats, the lines of which appeared last week. In all of these boats, as stated previously, the quality of speed has been given [...] Read more →

Making Apple Cider Vinegar

The greatest cause of failure in vinegar making is carelessness on the part of the operator. Intelligent separation should be made of the process into its various steps from the beginning to end.


The apples should be clean and ripe. If not clean, undesirable fermentations [...] Read more →

Of Decorated Furniture

DECORATED or “sumptuous” furniture is not merely furniture that is expensive to buy, but that which has been elaborated with much thought, knowledge, and skill. Such furniture cannot be cheap, certainly, but the real cost of it is sometimes borne by the artist who produces rather than by the man who may [...] Read more →

Catholic Religious Orders

Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Order of Friars Minor, as painted by El Greco.

Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are one of two types of religious institutes (‘Religious Institutes’, cf. canons 573–746), the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. They are organizations of laity [...] Read more →

Cocillana Syrup Compound

Guarea guidonia


5 Per Cent Alcohol 8-24 Grain – Heroin Hydrochloride 120 Minims – Tincture Euphorbia Pilulifera 120 Minims – Syrup Wild Lettuce 40 Minims – Tincture Cocillana 24 Minims – Syrup Squill Compound 8 Gram – Ca(s)ecarin (P, D, & Co.) 8-100 Grain Menthol

Dose – One-half to one fluidrams (2 to [...] Read more →

Gold and Economic Freedom

by Alan Greenspan, 1967

An almost hysterical antagonism toward the gold standard is one issue which unites statists of all persuasions. They seem to sense-perhaps more clearly and subtly than many consistent defenders of laissez-faire — that gold and economic freedom are inseparable, that the gold standard is an instrument [...] Read more →

Slaughter in Bombay

From Allen’s Indian Mail, December 3rd, 1851


On the evening of November 15th, the little village of Mahim was the scene of a murder, perhaps the most determined which has ever stained the annals of Bombay. Three men were massacred in cold blood, in a house used [...] Read more →

The Hunt Saboteur

The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace barking out loud, black mask on her face get those dogs off, get them off she did yell until a swift kick from me mare her voice it did quell and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale to the full cry of hounds drowning out her [...] Read more →

Platform of the American Institute of Banking in 1919

Resolution adapted at the New Orleans Convention of the American Institute of Banking, October 9, 1919:

“Ours is an educational association organized for the benefit of the banking fraternity of the country and within our membership may be found on an equal basis both employees and employers; [...] Read more →

Gout Remedies

Jan Verkolje Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe gout or uric acid crystals 1679.

For one suffering gout, the following vitamins, herbs, and extracts may be worth looking into:

Vitamin C Folic Acid – Folic Acid is a B vitamin and is also known as B9 – [Known food [...] Read more →

Coffee & Cigarettes

Aw, the good old days, meet in the coffee shop with a few friends, click open the Zippo, inhale a glorious nosegay of lighter fluid, fresh roasted coffee and a Marlboro cigarette….

A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

We conducted a [...] Read more →

Protecting Rare Books: How to Build a Silverfish Trap

Silverfish damage to book – photo by Micha L. Rieser

The beauty of hunting silverfish is that they are not the most clever of creatures in the insect kingdom.

Simply take a small clean glass jar and wrap it in masking tape. The masking tape gives the silverfish something to [...] Read more →

Traditional JuJutsu Health, Strength and Combat Tricks

Jujitsu training 1920 in Japanese agricultural school.



In the writer’s opinion it becomes necessary to make at this point some suggestions relative to a very important part of the training in jiu-jitsu. [...] Read more →

Bess of Hardwick: Four Times a Lady

Bess of Harwick

Four times the nuptial bed she warm’d, And every time so well perform’d, That when death spoil’d each husband’s billing, He left the widow every shilling. Fond was the dame, but not dejected; Five stately mansions she erected With more than royal pomp, to vary The prison of her captive When [...] Read more →

Shooting in Wet Weather


Reprint from The Sportsman’s Cabinet and Town and Country Magazine, Vol I. Dec. 1832, Pg. 94-95

To the Editor of the Cabinet.


Possessing that anxious feeling so common among shooters on the near approach of the 12th of August, I honestly confess I was not able [...] Read more →

Stoke Park – Granted by King Charles I

Stoke Park Pavillions


Stoke Park Pavilions, UK, view from A405 Road. photo by Wikipedia user Cj1340


From Wikipedia:

Stoke Park – the original house

Stoke park was the first English country house to display a Palladian plan: a central house with balancing pavilions linked by colonnades or [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from FineModelShips.com with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

Preserving Iron and Steel Surfaces with Paint

Painting the Brooklyn Bridge, Photo by Eugene de Salignac , 1914


Excerpt from: The Preservation of Iron and Steel Structures by F. Cosby-Jones, The Mechanical Engineer January 30, 1914


This is the method of protection against corrosion that has the most extensive use, owing to the fact that [...] Read more →

Of the Room and Furniture

Crewe Hall Dining Room


THE transient tenure that most of us have in our dwellings, and the absorbing nature of the struggle that most of us have to make to win the necessary provisions of life, prevent our encouraging the manufacture of well-wrought furniture.

We mean to outgrow [...] Read more →

The Character of a Happy Life

How happy is he born and taught. That serveth not another’s will; Whose armour is his honest thought, And simple truth his utmost skill

Whose passions not his masters are; Whose soul is still prepared for death, Untied unto the world by care Of public fame or private breath;

Who envies none that chance [...] Read more →

Money Saving Recipe for Gold Leaf Sizing

Artisans world-wide spend a fortune on commercial brand oil-based gold leaf sizing. The most popular brands include Luco, Dux, and L.A. Gold Leaf. Pricing for quart size containers range from $35 to $55 depending upon retailer pricing.

Fast drying sizing sets up in 2-4 hours depending upon environmental conditions, humidity [...] Read more →

How to Make Money – Insurance

Life insurance certificate issued by the Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company to Samuel Holt, Liverpool, England, 1851. On display at the British Museum in London. Donated by the ifs School of Finance. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor [...] Read more →

A Crock of Squirrel


4 young squirrels – quartered Salt & Pepper 1 large bunch of fresh coriander 2 large cloves of garlic 2 tbsp. salted sweet cream cow butter ¼ cup of brandy 1 tbsp. turbinado sugar 6 fresh apricots 4 strips of bacon 1 large package of Monterrey [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

Here’s Many a Year to You

” Here’s many a year to you ! Sportsmen who’ve ridden life straight. Here’s all good cheer to you ! Luck to you early and late.

Here’s to the best of you ! You with the blood and the nerve. Here’s to the rest of you ! What of a weak moment’s swerve ? [...] Read more →

Country House Christmas Pudding

Country House Christmas Pudding


1 cup Christian Bros Brandy ½ cup Myer’s Dark Rum ½ cup Jim Beam Whiskey 1 cup currants 1 cup sultana raisins 1 cup pitted prunes finely chopped 1 med. apple peeled and grated ½ cup chopped dried apricots ½ cup candied orange peel finely chopped 1 ¼ cup [...] Read more →

Tuna and Tarpon

July, 16, l898 Forest and Stream Pg. 48

Tuna and Tarpon.

New York, July 1.—Editor Forest and Stream: If any angler still denies the justice of my claim, as made in my article in your issue of July 2, that “the tuna is the grandest game [...] Read more →

Sea and River Fishing

An angler with a costly pole Surmounted with a silver reel, Carven in quaint poetic scroll- Jointed and tipped with finest steel— With yellow flies, Whose scarlet eyes And jasper wings are fair to see, Hies to the stream Whose bubbles beam Down murmuring eddies wild and free. And casts the line with sportsman’s [...] Read more →

The Black Grouper or Jewfish.


Nov. 5. 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 371-372

The Black Grouper or Jewfish.

New Smyrna, Fla., Oct. 21.—Editor Forest and Stream:

It is not generally known that the fish commonly called jewfish. warsaw and black grouper are frequently caught at the New Smyrna bridge [...] Read more →

Cup of Tea? To be or not to be

Twinings London – photo by Elisa.rolle

Is the tea in your cup genuine?

The fact is, had one been living in the early 19th Century, one might occasionally encounter a counterfeit cup of tea. Food adulterations to include added poisonings and suspect substitutions were a common problem in Europe at [...] Read more →

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.


“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

The Cremation of Sam McGee

Robert W. Service (b.1874, d.1958)


There are strange things done in the midnight sun By the men who moil for gold; The Arctic trails have their secret tales That would make your blood run cold; The Northern Lights have seen queer sights, But the queerest they ever did see Was that night [...] Read more →

Fruits of the Empire: Licorice Root and Juice

Liquorice, the roots of Glycirrhiza Glabra, a perennial plant, a native of the south of Europe, but cultivated to some extent in England, particularly at Mitcham, in Surrey.

Its root, which is its only valuable part, is long, fibrous, of a yellow colour, and when fresh, very juicy. [...] Read more →