History and Facts on American Newspaper Production from the Colonial Times Through the 1890s.

NEWSPAPER.-Printed sheets published at stated intervals, chiefly for the purpose of conveying intelligence on current events.

The Romans wrote out an account of the most memorable occurrences of the day, which were sent to public officials.  They were entitled Acta Durna, and read substantially like the local column of a country weekly paper of to-day.  Before the invention of printing letters were written regularly by persons in the chief capitals of Europe and dispatched to those who felt an interest in public affairs.  For this the correspondents were paid.  The earliest English journal in print was the Weekly Newes from Italy, Germanie, &c., in 1622, a prior newspaper preserved in the British Museum which contained an account of the Spanish Armada being regarded as a forgery.  The first attempt at reporting Parliament was made in 1641, and the first daily newspaper in England was the Daily Courant, in 1702.  The London Times was founded in 1788.  Long before this the Spectator, the Rambler and other journals had appeared, and a considerable number of special periodicals had been printed.  The Mercure François, beginning in 1605, was the earliest French newspaper.  The earliest German newspaper, the Frankfürter Oberpostamts-Zeitung, is still in existence. In began in 1616.  In Russia newspapers originated 1703, and in Holland in 1605.  European newspapers are of three types.  Those of France, Spain and Italy give comparatively little news, but much criticism and original light literature.  In Great Britain and its colonies the columns of a journal are devoted to reporting in a colorless way, but very fully, the affairs of the day, and they contain elaborate editorials upon public affairs. Private matters secure very little attention except when they come into court.  Their correspondence and editorial writing is generally executed by men of high education and wide information.  In Germany correspondence and restatements of public matters are the best points.  In most German newspapers there is little reading except of the dryest kind.  The chief centres of the press in Europe are in London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna, although the last two are far inferior to the others.  In Paris daily newspapers attain their highest circulation, passing in  one instance considerably beyond half a million.  London, however, spends more money on her journals that the other three capitals together, and by dint of perfect organization, lavish expenditure and excellent facilities in distribution is able to publish newspapers of the greatest value.

     In America the first journal appeared in Boston.  It was issued on September 25, 1690, and contained such reading matter that its further continuance was forbidden by the General Court.  The next was also in Boston, being the News-Letter.  It was issued on April 24, 1704, and lasted until 1776.  The Boston Gazette was issued on December 21, 1719, and the Philadelphia Weekly Mercury was started the next day.  On November 16, 1725, the Gazette was begun in New York.  In 1754 there were four newspapers published in Boston, two in New York, two in Philadelphia and one in Williamsburg, VA.  In 1776 there were thirty-seven in all of the colonies.  The early American newspapers were very small, and rarely published home news, the principal protion of their space being given up to extracts from foreign newspapers.  There was no local matter, except by accident.  Circulations were small, and the publisher, who was always the printer, was obliged to eke out a living by keeping a miscellaneous shop and attending to all sorts of commissions.  The first daily paper was the Philadephia Daily Advertiser, which began in 1784.  New York issued a daily paper the next year, but Boston did not have one until 1796.  The total number of newspapers published in the United States was in 1800, 200; 1810, 359, 1828, 852; 1830, 1,000; 1840, 1,631; 1850, 2,800; 1860, 4,051; 1870, 5,871; 1880, 11,314; and 1890, 16,948. All of the Atlantic seaboard States had newspapers in 1810, and in the Western States at that time Kentucky had 13,  Ohio 14, Tennessee 6, Indiana and Michigan each 1.  The earliest newspapers beyond the Alleghanies were in Pittsburg in 1786, and in Lexington, KY., in 1787.  The earliest newspapers away from tide-water was in Rochester, N.Y., in 1826.  Newspapers were published on the Pacific coast, at San Francisco, as soon as that city came under the control of the Americans.  Of late every town has one or more newspapers, and there is scarcely a village so small that one has not been attempted.

      The advancement of the newspapers in the United States has followed that of the development of road, railways and steamboats.  A New York newspaper can now be read in Chicago within twenty-five hours of its issue.  Fifteen years ago it would have taken thirty-six hours, and thirty years ago forty-eight hours. In the early part of the century it would have taken a man traveling express a month to carry it to Chicago.  This improvement in transit had rendered it possible to send newspapers in all directions to great distances. Paper has lessened in cost.  In 1810 the exertions of two pressmen, worth between them two dollars and a half for a day’s work, were requisite to print twelve hundred sheets on both sides.  Now on the ordinary cylinder press it takes one man half an hour, as he prints equal to four of the former sheets at once.  Every other facility has been increased.  The first great change was about 1817, when iron presses took twice as large a sheet as before.  In 1825 power0presses multiplied their speed by four, and 1847 this was again quadrupled by the lightning press.  The steamboat in 1807 made a great improvement in communication between places which were lying upon the water, giving them far better facilities, and about 1830 railroads were put into operation.  Thus when the first attempts were made to publish cheap daily newspapers they proved successful.  The cities had grown large enough to require many copies themselves, and inland places also bought largely.  The Sun in New York was the first successful penny daily.  It was speedily followed by others like the Philadelphia Ledger.  The principle of selling the journal to the carrier or newsboy was a great step in advance, and that of demanding prompt pay for advertising was another.  Successive improvements, detailed elsewhere, have much strengthened the newspaper press.  The use of the telegraph has equalized all places of like size, and new methods applied to the collection of news have so increased the interest felt that cities of one hundred thousand inhabitants now demand more copies of newspapers that those of half a million did thirty or thirty-five years ago.

     Newspapers call for the largest proportion of printing in the United States.  There is no town in which printing is done in which a newspaper is not published, and in most instances the work upon them take the larger share of the business.  The revenues of the newspaper printing-houses far exceed those of book and job offices, and the profits on similar investments are larger.  It is usual to divide newspapers into two classes, general and special.  Many are devoted to specialties, as law, trade, agriculture, or religion.  Some are collections of miscellany and novels, while others are devoted to subjects in which the world takes very little interest.  They are further divided as to frequency of issue.  The daily press is more powerful than the weekly, as it repeats its arguments and its comments day after day, and its news is given when it is fresh and the greatest interest is felt in it.  There are besides tri-weeklies, semi-weeklies, bi-weeklies, semi-monthlies, monthlies, bi-monthlies, quarterlies and annuals.  The last four are generally known as periodicals, a term which really applies to all journals.  Efforts have been made to establish newspapers which shall appear twice a day, but without success, although morning and evening editions are frequent, and it is not uncommon to see a morning and an evening paper issued from the same office, taking substantially the same view of public questions.  An early edition of an evening newspaper has been tried, the journal covering all of the ground from midnight until 7 or 8 o’clock in the morning, and late editions of evening papers have also been published containing sporting news.

     Daily newspapers are issued either in the morning or evening.  The latter, when only on edition is put forth, issue at about 3 o’clock; but when the city is considerable size its earliest edition will appear at about 1 o’clock, a second will be published at about 2:30. and a third at about 4 o’clock.  Frequently more editions than three are demanded.  Every page is not made up again, only two or three needing attention on an eight-page paper, and on a four-page paper perhaps only one.  The editors are usually at work at 8 o’clock, and they and the reporters labor until about the time of going to press.  In New York and some other cities no effort is made to collect for the next day and independent news of what happens after the paper is ready, or to publish anything then unreported, but morning newspapers give the news for the twenty-four hours.  In smaller cities the practice on both morning and evening journals is alike; everything which is interesting and previously un-narrated in a certain journal is inserted, no matter when it happened.  When the journal is weak pecuniarily much of the matter is extracted from other newspapers, sometimes being written over, but more commonly borrowed, with or without acknowledgment.  All the daily newspapers devote very much space and attention to their local news.  In the smallest towns this is absolutely necessary, if the paper is to succeed.  In such towns a column of brevier copy can be obtained for each five thousand inhabitants, this news being on a scale of such minuteness as to interest some persona in every street or neighborhood.  If the journal in a city of a hundred thousand in habitants were to imitate this example it would have too much local copy, although much more important events occur there.  Telegraphic news is obtained from one of the news associations, the Associated Press or the United Press, which charge in different parts of the country from twenty dollars a week upwards.  If the newspaper cannot afford this expenditure the American Press or the United Press, which charge in different parts of the country from twenty dollars a week upwards.  If the newspaper cannot afford this expenditure the American Press Association will furnish a summary of the news of the day and any miscellany which may be desired.   The shape is that of stereotype plates, so that no composition is required.  Telegraph copy is without any perspective.  The most trifling and the most important matter is sent, and the custom of most editors is to publish all, instead of editing what is received and throwing away that which is worthless.  Morning newspapers have more time to prepare their copy and to set it up that the evening papers, and generally they are richer.  They buy far more copy, and they have more special telegraphic dispatches and more correspondence.

     Ti-weeklies and semi-weeklies are not now so common as in former years.  As a rule they are made up from daily newspaper.  Many country dailies have all of their reading matter on two pages alongside of each other.  By holding these two pages over from one day until the next, and then allowing the reading matter of Tuesday to back that of Monday, a tri-weekly is produced with a minimum of labor.  Sometimes even the dates are not changed, and the paper has the same head inside and outside.  Semi-weeklies are got up with a little greater care, but not much more.  They are taken from three days’ issue.  Several long-established semi-weeklies have died within the last decade, as there was no longer any demand for them.

     Weekly newspapers are more important than any other kind except dailies.  They are continually multiplying, largely because readers like special journals, conveying particular news or ideas, and largely because they are published conveniently for the readers.  Most post-offices in the United States are not so situated that their daily mails can be distributed as received.  A visit once or twice a week to a post-office is all for which most farmers can find time, and in many cases two ro three weeks elapse between calls.  By agreement with neighbors, each taking turns in going to the post-office, papers and letters can be obtained more frequently.  The local newspapers are in large type; they contain the local news and a sufficient summary of the matter, with a proportion of miscellany.  They thus become very important factors in country life.  See WEEKLY NEWSPAPERS. (1.)

     (1.) Weekly.—A weekly newspaper.  [The greatest number of journals in this country and all others are issued weekly.  In 1898 there were in the United States 1,185 dailies, 14,017 weeklies and 4,134 other periodicals.  In the British Provinces there were 95 dailies, 589 weeklies and 234 other periodicals.  There is no community, however small, where there is not enough news to render a journal readable, and the expense of carrying on one is a trifle.  A weekly is also adapted for all special purposes, such as religion, trade or art.  Many weekly newspapers are a fortune in themselves.]

     Bi-weekly and semimonthly newspapers are usually issued in cities, and do not contain general news.  They are published at such intervals because their circle of reader is small, or because there is not enough pecuniary return to justify a more frequent issue.  Occasionally, also, they are controlled by the fact that the mails ae available only at these times.

     Monthly periodicals are treated to some extent under MAGAZINE, but some real newspapers are published at intervals as long as this.  Bi-monthlies and quarterlies are really magazines, except when intended to be given away, and annuals and semi-annuals are books to all intents and purposes.

     The subdivisions of newspapers as to subject are very numerous.  Trade journals in the United States date from 1830, when the Railroad Journal was established.  It is still published.  Religious newspapers were begun near the beginning of the century, and agricultural journals at about the same time.  Excellent papers are now published concerning agriculture, horticulture, finance, banking, printing, education, religion, secret societies, advertising, art, the army and navy, books, mechanical trades, children, commerce, cooking fashions, science, insurance, labor unions, machinery, music sports, medicines, law, temperance, real estate, paper, stationery, lumber, history and biography.  The total number of classes would be two or three hundred.

     Another development has been that of papers in foreign languages.  Bradford and his contemporaries and Boston printers issued books in Dutch, German and French, but it was not until after the Revolution that journals in foreign languages were issued, with the exception of German.  The greater number of these periodicals are now in German.  In Pennsylvania there are many American families in which German is spoken more easily than English, although their ancestors came here a hundred and fifty years ago, and there has been a large immigration of Germans for the past fifty years.  There are now about five hundred German newspapers in the United States.  After these come Danish, Swedish, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Dutch, Bohemian, Polish, Hungarian, Welsh and Armenian.  Many other languages are spoken within the limits of the United States, but there are not enough of one nation in any one place to support a newspaper.  These languages die out slowly.  The Germans began to come to this country in numbers in 1710.  For eighty years after 1765 there was little immigration.  Yet the German-speaking population steadily increased. Welsh became common in the vicinity of Utica in 1820, and to this day in some neighborhoods that language is as important as English.  The number of Dutch families which settled New York colony did not, it is thought, exceed three thousand.  There are, however, probably more than three thousand families in the State in which Dutch is understood, and it will take another century for this language to die out.  It never had many schools; little printing was executed in it, and preaching in Dutch ceased, as a rule, more than half a century ago.

     The various persons engaged in the production and publication of newspapers are publishers, deliverers, mailing-hands, carriers, newsboys, pressmen, engineers, feeders, compositors, proof-readers, draughtsmen, stereo-typers, editors, reporters, correspondents and advertising men.  Besides these are the usual clerks and porters.  No daily paper could be published in New York or Chicago employing less than a hundred persons; in many there will be three or four hundred, and it may possibly reach in some cases to nearly one thousand.  Among those charged with peculiar and responsible duties is the person who reads or examines all of the copy to prevent duplication.  The city editor keeps a diary of events to come, so that he can make preparation for reporting them as the time draws nigh, and there should be another person whose duty it is to watch with close attention general events in the same way.

     On one daily newspaper there are three indexers, who index every event of any importance under its subject with cross references, not only in that journal, but in its important contemporaries.  Thus, whatever happens, a reference to the same subject is almost certainly forth-coming.  Still another is an obituary writer, who receives all of the clippings relating to living persons, and puts them away awaiting the time when death shall demand that the extracts shall be brought forth again.  Many have already been written.  Should any public man die half an hour before a great journal goes to press the account of his life is handed to the printer, and it will appear the next morning.

     The compensation of writers on newspapers follows no general rule.  In New York city, where the highest prices are paid, the editor-in-chief will receive from five thousand dollars a year up to fifteen thousand.  One obtains more than twice the larger sum.  Managing editors receive from three thousand dollars up to twelve thousand, and writers of leaders from two thousand to six thousand.  City editors have from forty to eighty dollars a week; excellent reporters on first-class daily papers are paid from forty to sixty dollars; good reporters from thirty to forty on the same journals, or from twenty-five to thirty on papers of lower standing; and miscellaneous reporters and writers on daily and weekly journals get from twenty to thirty dollars.  Minor editorial positions are worth about thirty dollars.  On weekly papers prices are less.  An editor may receive fifty dollars a week, but on many he will obtain no more that thirty-five.  On small newspapers the editors will receive less, and the minor writers from fifteen to twenty.  Much copy is written on the daily and large weekly journals by SPACE, which see.  A foreman of a large daily paper will receive fifty dollars a week, but on a smaller one not more than thirty-five.  The publisher is paid from three to fifteen thousand dollars a year, the latter figure being exceptionally high.

     The chief centres of newspapers in this country are the great cities, but they do not follow the order of size.  Brooklyn, the fourth city in magnitude, has fewer dailies and fewer weeklies that many towns no more tha a sixth or seventh of its magnitude, has fewer dailies and fewer weeklies than many towns no more than a sixth or seventh of it magnitude.  The reason is plain.  It is overshadowed by its neighbor across the river.  Many Brooklyn people never see a Brooklyn newspaper, although they are constantly buying one published in New York, where, of course, more newspapers are issues than in any other city, Philadelphia and Chicago coming next on about anequality.  After these come Boston, St. Louis and Cincinnati.  Baltimore and New Orleans are both far behind; but San Francisco rather surpasses the last.  St. Paul and Minneapolis, considered by their daily press, are very high up in the ranks.  Some of the small cities publish many more newspapers in proportion to their population than the larger, and these are frequently very good.  Springfield, Mass., and Augusta, Me., may be given as examples.  The order in which American cities stood in 1880 in regard to daily circulation was New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Cleveland, Brooklyn, Detroit, New Orleans, Indianapolis, Washington, Albany and Providence.  The official returns for 1890 have not yet come to hand, but the relative standing has no doubt been much altered.  In Pittsburg five papers were taken by seven persons, and in New York and San Francisco five papers by eight persons.  In Jersey City there was only one newspaper to eleven inhabitants, and in Brooklyn only one to twelve.  The explanation of this is that Pittsburg and San Francisco have no competitors in their own region, while New York journals circulate throughout the whole country.  Jersey City and Brooklyn are swallowed up by New York, which is the centre of all news.

     A daily paper is not generally issued in towns having less than fifteen thousand inhabitants.  Two weekly newspapers are published at nearly every county seat, and one in other villages having a thousand population.  When the village reaches three thousand population it has two weeklies, and when it has five thousand population there are three.  The number does not often exceed four or five until a daily paper is begun.  A city with twenty thousand population will have two dailies, with forty thousand three, with sixty thousand four, and when it passes one hundred thousand there may be five.  After this point one is added to each fifty thousand until about ten are published.  The largest number of dailies in any one city in 1880 was 29, which was in New York.  Philadelphia had 24; San Francisco, 21; Chicago, 18; Cincinnati, 12; Boston, 11; and New Orleans, 10.  Brooklyn had only 5 and Louisville 5.  In New York there are now 41.

     A very large proportion of the newspapers are now sold by news agents, who receive as their own one-quarter to one-half of the whole of the price named by the publisher.  In the cities where news agents do no purchase largely the carriers must be paid for their services and collectors must be employed.  The receipts for advertising on daily papers constitute about one-half of the total income, but on weeklies and all others 39 per cent.  The receipts of the daily press in 1880 were estimated by Mr. North and $43, 702,113, and other periodicals at $45,306,961, a total of $89,009,074.  It would be safe to estimate that the increase for the last twelve years has not been less than 70 per cent., when we consider the prodigious growth of the newspapers in the great cities, the diminution of the price of paper and ink, and the assiduous cultivation of the art of gathering advertisements.  This is about the rate for the preceding decade, and would bring the total for to-day to $151,315,425.

     Newspapers, as a rule, are not very long lived.  Only one or two of those which started before the Revolution are still in existence, and the number which have maintained their footing for half a century is small, even when the identity of a present paper with a former one of the same name is considered.  In many cases there are gaps of five or ten years.  In New York only one newspaper is a hundred years old, and two have attained the age of ninety.  A list of the deaths of daily newspapers in New York since 1830 would considerably exceed two hundred.  Each represents hopes and aspirations, hard work and money.  The suspended newspaper publications in 1892 in the whole country, according to Rowell’s Newspaper Directory, were 1,826, and the new journals begun were 2,721.  Many end competition and existence by consolidation with other periodicals.

     A very large proportion of American newspapers are issued on what is popularly known as the patent inside or outside plan. By this method only a part of the matter is set by the journal itself, as purchases the sheet partly printed.  The price to the customer is only so much a quire, and for three to six dollars he will obtain paper sufficient for the whole edition of an ordinary country weekly, with as much printing upon it as would cost him from twenty to fifty dollars for composition.  As a rule, the part executed before it reaches the country printer is better than the remainder, and the reading matter is also better.  In the central office three or four thousand ems are set up each week, and selections from this quantity of matter are printed in two or three hundred newspapers.  Thus the cost of typesetting is reduced to a minimum; paper is bought in large quantities, and presswork is executed under favorable circumstances.  There is of course some delay in changing from one newspaper to the other, but practice has shown many methods of saving time.  These central offices generally reserve a certain proportion of space of advertising which they insert, and much of the energies of their managers are taken up in efforts to gather such notices.  There are perhaps twenty co-operative offices of this kind in the United States, most of them belonging to one or two combination.  See PARTLY PRINTED NEWSPAPERS.

     An analysis of the statistics given in 1890 by George Pl Rowell shows that the weekly papers represent 75 per cent. Of all the newspapers and periodicals in the country, the monthlies about 12 ½ per cent., and the dailies 9 ½ per cent.  The remaining 3 per cent. Is divided among the semi-monthlies, semi-weeklies, quarterlies, bi-weeklies, bi-monthlies and tri-weeklies, their frequency being in the order given.  The  United States and the British Province issue newspapers in the order as given below, only the first four publishing as many as a thousand each, the next ten beyond two hundred, the next fifteen beyond a hundred, and the last six below one hundred.  Nevada was the smallest, with 24, and New York was the largest, with 1,778.  The Territories together stand halfway and publish 290.  The list is as follows:  New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Dominion of Canada, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Massachusetts, Indiana, Michigan, Nebraska, California, Wisconsin, Texas, Minnesota, New Jersey, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, South Dakota, Tennessee, the Territories, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Connecticut, Maryland, Alabama, Maine, Mississippi, Louisiana, Washington, West Virginia, Oregon, New Hampshire, Florida, South Carolina, North Dakota, Vermont, District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Montana, Delaware and Nevada.  Of these 5,426 publications issued 500 copies each; 3,341,250 or less; 2,351,750; 2,016, 1,000; 1,181, 1,500; 612, 2,000; 503, 2,500; 506; 3,000; 432, 4,000; and 364, 5,000.  Three hundred and withy-three circulated between 7,500 and 10,000.  Those going beyond this were 615.  The highest number classified was 150,000, although there is no doubt and six or eight periodical surpass this figure.  One-fourth of all periodicals which are sold, and Pennsylvania, Illinois and Massachusetts print more that another quarter.

     The amount of type set on each newspaper of the daily press in 1880 averaged 74,147 ems, which it is probable has since been exceeded by at least ten thousand.  The entire quantity then set by all of the daily press of the United States was 66,140,266 ems.  If we take this to average minion at eleven ems to the inch the quantity would make a line niety-five miles long each day, advancing during the hours of composition at the rate of nearly ten miles an hour.  It was estimated that there was in use on these newspapers 6,689,878 pounds of type.  It is impossible to estimate the capital employed, as most journals have been started by men without means, and the growth in the way of sales and advertising did not require as great a corresponding increase in plant or in ready cash for expenses.  On weekly newspapers which are paying expenses it considered that capital enough of the outgoes of three months is sufficient, and most projectors for daily newspapers believe that a year’s expenses will expenses will equal the amount of capital required to put an enterprise of that kind on a paying basis.  Thus for a journal published at an expense of $500 a day $150,000 would be required.  Part would be sunk in each of the first three years, but in the fourth year the paper would make a moderate profit.  In ten years it might clear $30,000 or $40,000 a year.  If there was little competition, or the competition was so weak that it could be disregarded, less time and money would be sufficient.  In the weekly the rule above given would require that one costing $100 a week should have on hand, $1,300 capital to begin with in addition to its type.  There are twenty daily papers in the United States which are estimated to be worth over $1,000,000 each, and two or three are said to valued at $2,000,000 each.  This valuation would nt be far from their gross receipts each year.  The common estimate of valuation is five years’ net profits; but few publishers would sell for this.

     There are no very recent statistics relating to the press of the whole world.  The lates known to the writer are those given by H.P. Hubbard of New Haven, in 1881.  There were then supposed to be from 32,000 to 35,000 newspapers in existence, 11,000 or 12,000 being in the United States.  There are now in the United States and the British Provinces about 20,000 newspapers, and probably the remainder of the world will afford from 25,000 to 28,000.  In 1881 Germany had 5,529 newspapers, England 8,460, France 3,265, Austria-Hungary 1,802, Italy 1, 174, Spain 750, British America 624, Belgium 591, Switzerland 512, Russia 454, the Netherlands 435

      Australia 341, British India 373, Sweden 303, Mexico 283.  The largest circulations were in the United States, England, Germany and France.  In no other country did the newspaper circulation equal one-quarter of that of the French journals.  There were forty-nine countries in all.

     With the greater number of newspapers the largest expense is composition, but those with large circulation find that paper is the greatest item of cost, and editorial expenses, including telegraphing, come second.  Taking the outgoes of the New York Tribune for two years and the New York Sun for one year, the following analysis is reached: Tribune, 1865—Paper, 51 per cent.; composition, 12 per cent.; mailing, 6 per cent.; advertising, 1 per cent.; postage, 1 per cent.; United States tax on advertising, 1 per cent.; gaslight, 1 per cent.

     Tribune, 1866—Paper, 48: composition, 10; editorial expenses, 22; pressroom, 5; mailing, 4; publishing-office, salaries, 3; ink, 1; postage, 2; gaslight, 1; United States tax on advertising, 1; gaslight, 1.

     Sun, 1876—Paper, 45 per cent.; composition, 10; editorial expenses, 24; pressroom, 7; mailing, 1; publishing office, salaries, 3; ink, 1; postage, 2; gaslight, 1.

     The glue and molasses for rollers cost one-tenth as much as the ink.  That varied from 22 to 24 per cent. Of the other pressroom expenses, and was about a fortieth of the amount spent on paper.  The total expenses of the Tribune in the first year given were $646,107.86; in the second$885, 158/39; and for the Sun, supposing the week published was just average of a year, they were $824, 752.43.

     The quantity of white paper consumed upon a leading newspaper is now twice as great as at the times when the Tribune and Sun made their statements.  The amount used by the  Boston Herald in a recent year was worth $315,00; by the Boston Globe, $326,000; by the Chicago News, $324,000; and by the New York World, $667,500.  One newspaper in Atlanta, Ga., the Constitution, needed $63,000 worth of paper, and the Journal of Kansas City required $53,000.  The weekly composition bills of several journal, as stated, were for the Philadelphia Ledger, $2,150; the New York Time, $3,000; the New York Herald, $3,780; the Boston Globe, $4,100; and the New York World, $6,000.

Source: American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking – 1894


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It is unnecessary to point out that low-grade fruit may often be used to advantage in the preparation of vinegar. This has always been true in the case of apples and may be true with other fruit, especially grapes. The use of grapes for wine making is an outlet which [...] Read more →

King James Bible – Knights Templar Edition

Full Cover, rear, spine, and front

Published by Piranesi Press in collaboration with Country House Essays, this beautiful paperback version of the King James Bible is now available for $79.95 at Barnes and Noble.com

This is a limited Edition of 500 copies Worldwide. Click here to view other classic books [...] Read more →

Modern Slow Cookers, A Critical Design Flaw

Modern slow cookers come in all sizes and colors with various bells and whistles, including timers and shut off mechanisms. They also come with a serious design flaw, that being the lack of a proper domed lid.

The first photo below depict a popular model Crock-Pot® sold far and wide [...] Read more →

Arsenic and Old Lace

What is follows is an historical article that appeared in The Hartford Courant in 1916 about the arsenic murders carried out by Mrs. Archer-Gilligan. This story is the basis for the 1944 Hollywood film “Arsenic and Old Lace” starring Cary Grant and Priscilla Lane and directed by Frank Capra. The [...] Read more →

The Apparatus of the Stock Market


The components of any given market place include both physical structures set up to accommodate trading, and participants to include buyers, sellers, brokers, agents, barkers, pushers, auctioneers, agencies, and propaganda outlets, and banking or transaction exchange facilities.

Markets are generally set up by sellers as it is in their [...] Read more →

Money Saving Recipe for Gold Leaf Sizing

Artisans world-wide spend a fortune on commercial brand oil-based gold leaf sizing. The most popular brands include Luco, Dux, and L.A. Gold Leaf. Pricing for quart size containers range from $35 to $55 depending upon retailer pricing.

Fast drying sizing sets up in 2-4 hours depending upon environmental conditions, humidity [...] Read more →

The Human Seasons

John Keats

Four Seasons fill the measure of the year; There are four seasons in the mind of man: He has his lusty spring, when fancy clear Takes in all beauty with an easy span; He has his Summer, when luxuriously Spring’s honied cud of youthful thoughts he loves To ruminate, and by such [...] Read more →

The American Museum in Britain – From Florida to Bath

Hernando de Soto (c1496-1542) Spanish explorer and his men torturing natives of Florida in his determination to find gold. Hand-coloured engraving. John Judkyn Memorial Collection, Freshford Manor, Bath

The print above depicts Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his band of conquistadors torturing Florida natives in order to extract information on where [...] Read more →

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions:

As New is self-explanatory. It means that the book is in the state that it should have been in when it left the publisher. This is the equivalent of Mint condition in numismatics. Fine (F or FN) is As New but allowing for the normal effects of [...] Read more →

Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport. Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally [...] Read more →

JP Morgan’s Digital Currency Patent Application

J.P. Morgan Patent #8,452,703

Method and system for processing internet payments using the electronic funds transfer network.


Embodiments of the invention include a method and system for conducting financial transactions over a payment network. The method may include associating a payment address of an account [...] Read more →

Books Condemned to be Burnt








WHEN did books first come to be burnt in England by the common hangman, and what was [...] Read more →

Of Decorated Furniture

DECORATED or “sumptuous” furniture is not merely furniture that is expensive to buy, but that which has been elaborated with much thought, knowledge, and skill. Such furniture cannot be cheap, certainly, but the real cost of it is sometimes borne by the artist who produces rather than by the man who may [...] Read more →

Cup of Tea? To be or not to be

Twinings London – photo by Elisa.rolle

Is the tea in your cup genuine?

The fact is, had one been living in the early 19th Century, one might occasionally encounter a counterfeit cup of tea. Food adulterations to include added poisonings and suspect substitutions were a common problem in Europe at [...] Read more →

A Summer Memory


Here, where these low lush meadows lie, We wandered in the summer weather, When earth and air and arching sky, Blazed grandly, goldenly together.

And oft, in that same summertime, We sought and roamed these self-same meadows, When evening brought the curfew chime, And peopled field and fold with shadows.

I mind me [...] Read more →

How to Distinguish Fishes


Sept. 3, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 188-189

How to Distinguish Fishes.

BY FRED MATHER. The average angler knows by sight all the fish which he captures, but ask him to describe one and he is puzzled, and will get off on the color of the fish, which is [...] Read more →

The Intaglio Processes for Audubon’s Birds of America

Notes on the intaglio processes of the most expensive book on birds available for sale in the world today.

The Audubon prints in “The Birds of America” were all made from copper plates utilizing four of the so called “intaglio” processes, engraving, etching, aquatint, and drypoint. Intaglio [...] Read more →

Artist Methods

Como dome facade – Pliny the Elder – Photo by Wolfgang Sauber

Work in Progress…


Every substance may be considered as a varnish, which, when applied to the surface of a solid body, gives it a permanent lustre. Drying oil, thickened by exposure to the sun’s heat or [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

Naval Stores – Distilling Turpentine

Chipping a Turpentine Tree

DISTILLING TURPENTINE One of the Most Important Industries of the State of Georgia Injuring the Magnificent Trees Spirits, Resin, Tar, Pitch, and Crude Turpentine all from the Long Leaved Pine – “Naval Stores” So Called.

Dublin, Ga., May 8. – One of the most important industries [...] Read more →

Banana Propagation

Banana Propagation

Reprinted from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA.org)

The traditional means of obtaining banana planting material (“seed”) is to acquire suckers from one’s own banana garden, from a neighbor, or from a more distant source. This method served to spread common varieties around the world and to multiply them [...] Read more →

Palermo Wine

Take to every quart of water one pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day. You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it [...] Read more →

What’s the Matter?

A rhetorical question? Genuine concern?

In this essay we are examining another form of matter otherwise known as national literary matters, the three most important of which being the Matter of Rome, Matter of France, and the Matter of England.

Our focus shall be on the Matter of England or [...] Read more →

Travels by Narrowboat

Oh Glorious England, verdant fields and wandering canals…

In this wonderful series of videos, the CountryHouseGent takes the viewer along as he chugs up and down the many canals crisscrossing England in his classic Narrowboat. There is nothing like a free man charting his own destiny.

Here’s Many a Year to You

” Here’s many a year to you ! Sportsmen who’ve ridden life straight. Here’s all good cheer to you ! Luck to you early and late.

Here’s to the best of you ! You with the blood and the nerve. Here’s to the rest of you ! What of a weak moment’s swerve ? [...] Read more →

The Stock Exchange Specialist

New York Stock Exchange Floor September 26,1963

The Specialist as a member of a stock exchange has two functions.’ He must execute orders which other members of an exchange may leave with him when the current market price is away from the price of the orders. By executing these orders on behalf [...] Read more →

The Snipe

THE SNIPE, from the Shooter’s Guide by B. Thomas – 1811

AFTER having given a particular description of the woodcock, it will only. be necessary to observe, that the plumage and shape of the snipe is much the same ; and indeed its habits and manners sets bear a great [...] Read more →

A General Process for Making Wine

A General Process for Making Wine.

Gathering the Fruit Picking the Fruit Bruising the Fruit Vatting the Fruit Vinous Fermentation Drawing the Must Pressing the Must Casking the Must Spirituous Fermentation Racking the Wine Bottling and Corking the Wine Drinking the Wine


It is of considerable consequence [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

Curing Diabetes With an Old Malaria Formula

For years in the West African nation of Ghana medicine men have used a root and leaves from a plant called nibima(Cryptolepis sanguinolenta) to kill the Plasmodium parasite transmitted through a female mosquito’s bite that is the root cause of malaria. A thousand miles away in India, a similar(same) plant [...] Read more →

How to Make Money – Insurance

Life insurance certificate issued by the Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company to Samuel Holt, Liverpool, England, 1851. On display at the British Museum in London. Donated by the ifs School of Finance. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor [...] Read more →

Chinese Duck Cooking – A Few Recipes

Chen Lin, Water fowl, in Cahill, James. Ge jiang shan se (Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368, Taiwan edition). Taipei: Shitou chubanshe fen youxian gongsi, 1994. pl. 4:13, p. 180. Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. scroll, light colors on paper, 35.7 x 47.5 cm


Zulu Yawl

Dec. 10, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 477-479


The little ship shown in the accompanying plans needs no description, as she speaks for herself, a handsome and shipshape craft that a man may own for years without any fear that she will go to pieces [...] Read more →

A Crock of Squirrel


4 young squirrels – quartered Salt & Pepper 1 large bunch of fresh coriander 2 large cloves of garlic 2 tbsp. salted sweet cream cow butter ¼ cup of brandy 1 tbsp. turbinado sugar 6 fresh apricots 4 strips of bacon 1 large package of Monterrey [...] Read more →

Chinese 9 Course Dinner

The following recipes form the most popular items in a nine-course dinner program:


Soak one pound bird’s nest in cold water overnight. Drain the cold water and cook in boiling water. Drain again. Do this twice. Clean the bird’s nest. Be sure [...] Read more →

Stoke Park – Granted by King Charles I

Stoke Park Pavillions


Stoke Park Pavilions, UK, view from A405 Road. photo by Wikipedia user Cj1340


From Wikipedia:

Stoke Park – the original house

Stoke park was the first English country house to display a Palladian plan: a central house with balancing pavilions linked by colonnades or [...] Read more →

Method of Restoration for Ancient Bronzes and other Alloys

Cannone nel castello di Haut-Koenigsbourg, photo by Gita Colmar

Without any preliminary cleaning the bronze object to be treated is hung as cathode into the 2 per cent. caustic soda solution and a low amperage direct current is applied. The object is suspended with soft copper wires and is completely immersed into [...] Read more →

The First Christian Man Cremated in America

Laurens’ portrait as painted during his time spent imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was kept for over a year after being captured at sea while serving as the United States minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

The first Christian white man to be cremated in America was [...] Read more →

A Couple of Classic Tennessee Squirrel Recipes


3-4 Young Squirrels, dressed and cleaned 1 tsp. Morton Salt or to taste 1 tsp. McCormick Black Pepper or to taste 1 Cup Martha White All Purpose Flour 1 Cup Hog Lard – Preferably fresh from hog killing, or barbecue table

Cut up three to [...] Read more →

A History of the Use of Arsenicals in Man

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

Catholic Religious Orders

Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Order of Friars Minor, as painted by El Greco.

Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are one of two types of religious institutes (‘Religious Institutes’, cf. canons 573–746), the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. They are organizations of laity [...] Read more →

Preserving Iron and Steel Surfaces with Paint

Painting the Brooklyn Bridge, Photo by Eugene de Salignac , 1914


Excerpt from: The Preservation of Iron and Steel Structures by F. Cosby-Jones, The Mechanical Engineer January 30, 1914


This is the method of protection against corrosion that has the most extensive use, owing to the fact that [...] Read more →

Tuna Record


July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 11

The Tuna Record.

Avalon. Santa Catalina Island. Southern California, June 16.—Editor Forest and Stream: Several years ago the writer in articles on the “Game Fishes of the Pacific Slope,” in [...] Read more →

Herbal Psychedelics – Rhododendron ponticum and Mad Honey Disease

Toxicity of Rhododendron From Countrysideinfo.co.UK

“Potentially toxic chemicals, particularly ‘free’ phenols, and diterpenes, occur in significant quantities in the tissues of plants of Rhododendron species. Diterpenes, known as grayanotoxins, occur in the leaves, flowers and nectar of Rhododendrons. These differ from species to species. Not all species produce them, although Rhododendron ponticum [...] Read more →

Abingdon, Berkshire in the Year of 1880

St.Helen’s on the Thames, photo by Momit


From a Dictionary of the Thames from Oxford to the Nore. 1880 by Charles Dickens

Abingdon, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 103 3/4miles, from Oxford 7 3/4 miles. A station on the Great Western Railway, from Paddington 60 miles. The time occupied [...] Read more →

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

Reprint from the Royal Collection Trust Website

The meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, took place between 7 to 24 June 1520 in a valley subsequently called the Val d’Or, near Guisnes to the south of Calais. The [...] Read more →

British Craftsmanship is Alive and Well

The Queen Elizabeth Trust, or QEST, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of British craftsmanship through the funding of scholarships and educational endeavours to include apprenticeships, trade schools, and traditional university classwork. The work of QEST is instrumental in keeping alive age old arts and crafts such as masonry, glassblowing, shoemaking, [...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

The Kalmar War

Wojna Kalmarska – 1611

The Kalmar War

From The Historian’s History of the World (In 25 Volumes) by Henry Smith William L.L.D. – Vol. XVI.(Scandinavia) Pg. 308-310

The northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, as already noticed, had been peopled from the remotest times by nomadic tribes called Finns or Cwenas by [...] Read more →

Bess of Hardwick: Four Times a Lady

Bess of Harwick

Four times the nuptial bed she warm’d, And every time so well perform’d, That when death spoil’d each husband’s billing, He left the widow every shilling. Fond was the dame, but not dejected; Five stately mansions she erected With more than royal pomp, to vary The prison of her captive When [...] Read more →

Sea and River Fishing

An angler with a costly pole Surmounted with a silver reel, Carven in quaint poetic scroll- Jointed and tipped with finest steel— With yellow flies, Whose scarlet eyes And jasper wings are fair to see, Hies to the stream Whose bubbles beam Down murmuring eddies wild and free. And casts the line with sportsman’s [...] Read more →

Glimpses from the Chase

From Fores’s Sporting Notes and Sketches, A Quarterly Magazine Descriptive of British, Indian, Colonial, and Foreign Sport with Thirty Two Full Page Illustrations Volume 10 1893, London; Mssrs. Fores Piccadilly W. 1893, All Rights Reserved.

GLIMPSES OF THE CHASE, Ireland a Hundred Years Ago. By ‘Triviator.’

FOX-HUNTING has, like Racing, [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from FineModelShips.com with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

The Perfect Salad Dressing

The following recipes are from a small booklet entitled 500 Delicious Salads that was published for the Culinary Arts Institute in 1940 by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc. 153 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.

If you have been looking for a way to lighten up your salads and be free of [...] Read more →

The Shirk – An Old but Familiar Phenomena


THE shirk is a well-known specimen of the genus homo. His habitat is offices, stores, business establishments of all kinds. His habits are familiar to us, but a few words on the subject will not be amiss. The shirk usually displays activity when the boss is around, [...] Read more →

Tobacco as Medicine

The first published illustration of Nicotiana tabacum by Pena and De L’Obel, 1570–1571 (shrpium adversana nova: London).

Tobacco can be used for medicinal purposes, however, the ongoing American war on smoking has all but obscured this important aspect of ancient plant.

Tobacco is considered to be an indigenous plant of [...] Read more →

King Lear

Edwin Austin Abbey. King Lear, Act I, Scene I (Cordelia’s Farewell) The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Dates: 1897-1898 Dimensions: Height: 137.8 cm (54.25 in.), Width: 323.2 cm (127.24 in.) Medium: Painting – oil on canvas

Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.


“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

The English Tradition of Woodworking

THE sense of a consecutive tradition has so completely faded out of English art that it has become difficult to realise the meaning of tradition, or the possibility of its ever again reviving; and this state of things is not improved by the fact that it is due to uncertainty of purpose, [...] Read more →

King Arthur Legends, Myths, and Maidens

King Arthur, Legends, Myths & Maidens is a massive book of Arthurian legends. This limited edition paperback was just released on Barnes and Noble at a price of $139.00. Although is may seem a bit on the high side, it may prove to be well worth its price as there are only [...] Read more →

The Basics of Painting in the Building Trade

PAINTER-WORK, in the building trade. When work is painted one or both of two distinct ends is achieved, namely the preservation and the coloration of the material painted. The compounds used for painting—taking the word as meaning a thin protective or decorative coat—are very numerous, including oil-paint of many kinds, distemper, whitewash, [...] Read more →

Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events

In July of 1968, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), published NASA Technical Report TR R-277 titled Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events.

The catalog begins with the first entry dated November 26th, 1540 at ∼05h 00m:

Feature: Region of Calippus2 Description: Starlike appearance on dark side Observer: Observers at Worms Reference: [...] Read more →

Proper Wines to Serve with Food

Foie gras with Sauternes, Photo by Laurent Espitallier

As an Appetizer

Pale dry Sherry, with or without bitters, chilled or not. Plain or mixed Vermouth, with or without bitters. A dry cocktail.

With Oysters, Clams or Caviar

A dry flinty wine such as Chablis, Moselle, Champagne. Home Top of [...] Read more →

Proper Book Handling and Cleaning

Book Conservators, Mitchell Building, State Library of New South Wales, 29.10.1943, Pix Magazine

The following is taken verbatim from a document that appeared several years ago in the Maine State Archives. It seems to have been removed from their website. I happened to have made a physical copy of it at the [...] Read more →

Ought King Leopold to be Hanged?

King Leopold Butcher of the Congo

For the somewhat startling suggestion in the heading of this interview, the missionary interviewed is in no way responsible. The credit of it, or, if you like, the discredit, belongs entirely to the editor of the Review, who, without dogmatism, wishes to pose the question as [...] Read more →

Blackberry Wine


5 gallons of blackberries 5 pound bag of sugar

Fill a pair of empty five gallon buckets half way with hot soapy water and a ¼ cup of vinegar. Wash thoroughly and rinse.

Fill one bucket with two and one half gallons of blackberries and crush with [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

Public Attitudes Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an overwhelming majority [...] Read more →

Clover Wine

Add 3 quarts clover blossoms* to 4 quarts of boiling water removed from heat at point of boil. Let stand for three days. At the end of the third day, drain the juice into another container leaving the blossoms. Add three quarts of fresh water and the peel of one lemon to the blossoms [...] Read more →

Fed Policy Success Equals Tax Payers Job Insecurity

The low level of work stoppages of recent years also attests to concern about job security.

Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan The Federal Reserve’s semiannual monetary policy report Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate February 26, 1997

Iappreciate the opportunity to appear before this Committee [...] Read more →

Of the Room and Furniture

Crewe Hall Dining Room


THE transient tenure that most of us have in our dwellings, and the absorbing nature of the struggle that most of us have to make to win the necessary provisions of life, prevent our encouraging the manufacture of well-wrought furniture.

We mean to outgrow [...] Read more →

The First Greek Book by John Williams White

Click here to read The First Greek Book by John Williams White

The First Greek Book - 15.7MB



The death, on May 9, of John Williams White, professor of Greek in Harvard University, touches a large number of classical [...] Read more →

Fortune, Independence, and Competence

THE answer to the question, What is fortune has never been, and probably never will be, satisfactorily made. What may be a fortune for one bears but small proportion to the colossal possessions of another. The scores or hundreds of thousands admired and envied as a fortune in most of our communities [...] Read more →

Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture


The Ten Books on Architecture




Carpet Cleaner Formulae

The Ardabil Carpet – Made in the town of Ardabil in north-west Iran, the burial place of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334. The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, ancestor of Shah Ismail, founder of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1722). While the exact origins of the carpet are unclear, it’s believed to have [...] Read more →

The Black Grouper or Jewfish.


Nov. 5. 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 371-372

The Black Grouper or Jewfish.

New Smyrna, Fla., Oct. 21.—Editor Forest and Stream:

It is not generally known that the fish commonly called jewfish. warsaw and black grouper are frequently caught at the New Smyrna bridge [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Setting Fox Traps

Aug. 13, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 125

Game Bag and Gun.

Indian Modes of Hunting. III.—Foxes.

The fox as a rule is a most wily animal, and numerous are the stories of his cunning toward the Indian hunter with his steel traps.

Carpenters’ Furniture

IT requires a far search to gather up examples of furniture really representative in this kind, and thus to gain a point of view for a prospect into the more ideal where furniture no longer is bought to look expensively useless in a boudoir, but serves everyday and commonplace need, such as [...] Read more →

Cocillana Syrup Compound

Guarea guidonia


5 Per Cent Alcohol 8-24 Grain – Heroin Hydrochloride 120 Minims – Tincture Euphorbia Pilulifera 120 Minims – Syrup Wild Lettuce 40 Minims – Tincture Cocillana 24 Minims – Syrup Squill Compound 8 Gram – Ca(s)ecarin (P, D, & Co.) 8-100 Grain Menthol

Dose – One-half to one fluidrams (2 to [...] Read more →

U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act – Full Text

WIPO HQ Geneva


TITLE I – PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION OFFICE Chapter Section 1. Organization and Publications . 1 2. Legal Provisions as to the Plant Variety Protection Office . 21 3. Plant Variety Protection Fees . 31


History of the Cabildo in New Orleans

Cabildo circa 1936

The Cabildo houses a rare copy of Audubon’s Bird’s of America, a book now valued at $10 million+.

Should one desire to visit the Cabildo, click here to gain free entry with a lowcost New Orleans Pass.

Home Top of [...] Read more →

The Character of a Happy Life

How happy is he born and taught. That serveth not another’s will; Whose armour is his honest thought, And simple truth his utmost skill

Whose passions not his masters are; Whose soul is still prepared for death, Untied unto the world by care Of public fame or private breath;

Who envies none that chance [...] Read more →

Historical Uses of Arsenic

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

Books of Use to the International Art Collector

Hebborn Piranesi

Before meeting with an untimely death at the hand of an unknown assassin in Rome on January 11th, 1996, master forger Eric Hebborn put down on paper a wealth of knowledge about the art of forgery. In a book published posthumously in 1997, titled The Art Forger’s Handbook, Hebborn suggests [...] Read more →

On Bernini’s Bust of a Stewart King

As reported in the The Colac Herald on Friday July 17, 1903 Pg. 8 under Art Appreciation as a reprint from the Westminster Gazette


The appreciation of art as well as of history which is entertained by the average member of the [...] Read more →