The Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Translated into English by

Panini Office, Allahabad


There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves heard them second hand, and no attempt is made to find out the truth by a direct reference to any good treatise. It is generally believed that the six practices, in Haṭha Yoga are compulsory on the student and that besides being dirty, they are fraught with danger to the practiser. This is not true, for these practices are necessary only in the existence of impurities in the Nâdis, and not otherwise.

There is the same amount of misunderstanding with regard to the Prâṇâyâma. People put their faith implicitly in the stories told them about the dangers attending the practice, without ever taking the trouble of ascertaining the fact themselves. We have been inspiring and expiring air from our birth, and will continue to do so till death; and this is done without the help of any teacher. Prâṇâyâma is nothing but a properly regulated form of the otherwise irregular and hurried flow of air, without using much force or undue restraint; and if this is accomplished by patiently keeping the flow slow and steady, there can be no danger. It is the impatience for the Siddhis which cause undue pressure on the organs and thereby causes pains in the ears, the eyes, the chest, etc. If the three bandhas be carefully performed while practising the Prâṇâyâma, there is no possibility of any danger.

There are two classes of students of Yoga: (1) those who study it theoretically; (2) those who combine the theory with practice.

Yoga is of very little use, if studied theoretically. It was never meant for such a study. In its practical form, however, the path of the student is beset with difficulties. The books on Yoga give instructions so far as it is possible to express the methods in words, but all persons, not being careful enough to follow these instructions to the very letter, fail in their object. Such persons require a teacher versed in the practice of Yoga. It is easy to find a teacher who will explain the language of the books, but this is far from being satisfactory. For instance, a Pandit without any knowledge of the science of Materia Medica will explain asor an enemy of thorns, i.e., shoes, while it is in reality the name of a medicinal plant.

The importance of a practical Yogî as a guide to a student of Yoga cannot be overestimated; and without such a teacher it is next to impossible for him to achieve anything. The methods followed by the founders of the system and followed ever afterwards by their followers, have been wisely and advisedly kept secret; and this is not without a deep meaning. Looking to the gravity of the subject and the practices which have a very close relation with the vital organs of the human body, it is of paramount importance that the instructions should be received by students of ordinary capacity, through a practical teacher only, in order to avoid any possibility of mistake in practice.

Speaking broadly, all men are not equally fitted to receive the instructions on equal terms. Man inherits on birth his mental and physical capitals, according to his actions in past births, and has to increase them by manipulation, but there are, even among such, different grades.

Hence, one cannot become a Yogî in one incarnation, as says Śri Kṛiṣṇa and again there are men who, impelled by the force of their actions of previous births, go headlong and accomplish their liberation in a single attempt; but others have to earn it in their successive births. If the student belongs to one of such souls and being earnest, desires from his heart to get rid of the pains of birth and death, he will find the means too. It is well-known that a true Yogî is above temptations and so to think that he keeps his knowledge secret for selling it to the highest bidder is simply absurd. Yoga is meant for the good of all creatures, and a true Yogî is always desirous of benefitting as many men as possible. But he is not to throw away this precious treasure indiscriminately. He carefully chooses its recipients, and when he finds a true and earnest student, who will not trifle with this knowledge, he never hesitates in placing his valuable treasure at the disposal of the man. What is essential in him is that he should have a real thirst for such knowledge—a thirst which will make him restless till satisfied; the thirst that will make him blind to the world and its enjoyments. He should be, in short, fired with or desire for emancipation. To such a one, there is nothing dearer than the accomplishment of this object. A true lover will risk his very life to gain union with his beloved like Tulasîdâs. A true lover will see everywhere, in every direction, in every tree and leaf, in every blade of grass his own beloved. The whole of the world, with all its beauties, is a dreary waste in his eyes, without his beloved. And he will court death, fall into the mouth of a gaping grave, for the sake of his beloved. The student whose heart burns with such intense desire for union with Paraṃâtmâ, is sure to find a teacher, and through him he will surely find Him It is a tried experience that Paraṃâtmâ will try to meet you half way, with the degree of intensity with which you will go to meet Him. Even He Himself will become your guide, direct you on to the road to success, or put you on the track to find a teacher, or lead him to you. Well has it been said It is the half-hearted who fail. They hold their worldly pleasures dearer to their hearts than their God, and therefore He in His turn does not consider them worthy of His favours.

Says the Upaniṣad:

The âtmâ will choose you its abode only if it considers you worthy of such a favour, and not otherwise. It is therefore necessary that one should first make oneself worthy of His acceptance. Having prepared the temple (your heart) well fitted for His installation there, having cleared it of all the impurities which stink and make the place unsuitable for the highest personage to live in, and having decorated it beautifully with objects as befit that Lord of the creation, you need not wait long for Him to adorn this temple of yours which you have taken pains to make it worthy of Him. If you have done all this, He will shine in you in all His glory. In your difficult moments, when you are embarrassed, sit in a contemplative mood, and approach your Parama Guru submissively and refer your difficulties to Him, you are sure to get the proper advice from Him. He is the Guru of the ancients, for He is not limited by Time. He instructed the ancients in bygone times, like a Guru, and if you have been unable to find a teacher in the human form, enter your inner temple and consult this Great Guru who accompanies you everywhere, and ask Him to show you the way. He knows best what is best, for you. Unlike mortal beings, He is beyond the past and the future, will either send one of His agents to guide you or lead you to one and put you on the right track. He is always anxious to teach the earnest seekers, and waits for you to offer Him an opportunity to do so. But if you have not done your duty and prepared yourself worthy of entering His door, and try to gain access to His presence, laden with your unclean burden, stinking with Kama, Krodha, Lobha, and Moha, be sure He will keep you off from Him.
The Âsanas are a means of gaining steadiness of position and help to gain success in contemplation, without any distraction of the mind. If the position be not comfortable, the slightest inconvenience will draw the mind away from the lakśya (aim), and so no peace of mind will be possible till the posture has ceased to cause pain by regular exercise.

Of all the various methods for concentrating the mind, repetition of Praṇava or Ajapâ Jâpa and contemplation on its meaning is the best. It is impossible for the mind to sit idle even for a single moment, and, therefore, in order to keep it well occupied and to keep other antagonistic thoughts from entering it, repetition of Praṇava should be practised. It should be repeated till Yoga Nidrâ is induced which, when experienced, should be encouraged by slackening all the muscles of the body. This will fill the mind with sacred and divine thoughts and will bring about its one-pointedness, without much effort.

Anâhata Nâda is awakened by the exercise of Prâṇâyâma. A couple of weeks’ practice with 80 prâṇâyâmas in the morning and the same number in the evening will cause distinct sounds to be heard; and, as the practice will go on increasing, varied sounds become audible to the practiser. By hearing these sounds attentively one gets concentration of the mind, and thence Sahaja Samâdhi. When Yoga sleep is experienced, the student should give himself up to it and make no efforts to check it. By and by, these sounds become subtle and they become less and less intense, so the mind loses its waywardness and becomes calm and docile; and, on this practice becoming well-established, Samâdhi becomes a voluntary act. This is, however, the highest stage and is the lot of the favoured and fortunate few only.

During contemplation one sees, not with his eyes, as he does the objects of the world, various colours, which the writers on Yoga call the colours of the five elements. Sometimes, stars are seen glittering, and lightning flashes in the sky. But these are all fleeting in their nature.

At first these colours are seen in greatly agitated waves which show the unsteady condition of the mind; and as the practice increases and the mind becomes calm, these colour-waves become steady and motionless and appear as one deep ocean of light. This is the ocean in which One should dive and forget the world and become one with his Lord—which is the condition of highest bliss.

Faith in the practices of Yoga, and in one’s own powers to accomplish what others have done before, is of great importance to insure speedy success. I mean “faith that will move mountains,” will accomplish anything, be it howsoever difficult. There is nothing which cannot be accomplished by practice. Says Śiva in Śiva Saṃhitâ. Through practice success is obtained; through practice one gains liberation. Perfect consciousness is gained through practice; Yoga is attained through practice; success in mudrâs comes by practice. Through practice is gained success in Prâṇâyâma. Death can be evaded of its prey through practice, and man becomes the conqueror of death by practice. And then let us gird up our loins, and with a firm resolution engage in the practice, having faith in, and the success must be ours. May the Almighty Father, be pleased to shower His blessings on those who thus engage in the performance of their duties.

Om Siam.

PANCHAM SINH.AJMER: 31st January, 1915.



On Âsanas.

1. Salutation to Âdinâtha (Śiva) who expounded the knowledge of Haṭha Yoga, which like a staircase leads the aspirant to the high pinnacled Râja Yoga.
2. Yogin Swâtmârâma, after saluting first his Gurû Srinâtha explains Haṭha Yoga for the attainment of Raja Yoga.
3. Owing to the darkness arising from the multiplicity of opinions people are unable to know the Râja Yoga. Compassionate Swâtmârâma composes the Haṭha Yoga Pradipikâ like a torch to dispel it.
4. Matsyendra, Gorakṣa, etc., knew Haṭha Vidyâ, and by their favour Yogî Swâtmârâma also learnt it from them.
5. The following Siddhas (masters) are said to have existed in former times:—
Sri Âdinâtha (Śiva), Matsyendra, Nâtha, Sâbar, Anand, Bhairava, Chaurangi, Mîna nâtha, Gorakṣanâtha, Virupâkṣa, Bileśaya.
6. Manthâna, Bhairava, Siddhi Buddha, Kanthadi, Karantaka, Surânanda, Siddhipâda, Charapati.
7. Kânerî, Pûjyapâda, Nityanâtha, Nirañjana, Kapâli, Vindunâtha, Kâka Chandîśwara.
8. Allâma, Prabhudeva, Ghodâ, Cholî, Tintiṇi, Bhânukî Nârdeva, Khanda Kâpâlika, etc.
9. These Mahâsiddhas (great masters), breaking the sceptre of death, are roaming in the universe.
10. Like a house protecting one from the heat of the sun, Haṭha Yoga protects its practiser from the burning heat of the three Tâpas; and, similarly, it is the supporting tortoise, as it were, for those who are constantly devoted to the practice of Yoga.
11. A Yogî desirous of success should keep the knowledge of Haṭha Yoga secret; for it becomes potent by concealing, and impotent by exposing.
12. The Yogî should practise Haṭha Yoga in a small room, situated in a solitary place, being 4 cubits square, and free from stones, fire, water, disturbances of all kinds, and in a country where justice is properly administered, where good people live, and food can be obtained easily and plentifully.
13. The room should have a small door, be free from holes, hollows, neither too high nor too low, well plastered with cow-dung and free from dirt, filth and insects. On its outside there should be bowers, raised platform (chabootrâ), a well, and a compound. These characteristics of a room for Haṭha Yogîs have been described by adepts in the practice of Haṭha.
14. Having seated in such a room and free from all anxieties, he should practise Yoga, as instructed by his guru.
15. Yoga is destroyed by the following six causes:—Over-eating, exertion, talkativeness, adhering to rules, i.e., cold bath in the morning, eating at night, or eating fruits only, company of men, and unsteadiness.
16. The following six bring speedy success:—Courage, daring, perseverance, discriminative knowledge, faith, aloofness from company.
17. The ten rules of conduct are: ahiṃsâ (non-injuring), truth, non-stealing, continence, forgiveness, endurance, compassion, meekness, sparing diet and cleanliness.
18. The ten niyamas mentioned by those proficient in the knowledge of yoga are: Tapa, patience, belief in God, charity, adoration of God, hearing discourses on the principles of religion, shame, intellect, Tapa and Yajña.

19. Being the first accessory of Haṭha Yoga, âsana is described first. It should be practised for gaining steady posture, health and lightness of body.
20. I am going to describe certain âsanas which have been adopted by Munîs like Vasiṣṭha, etc., and Yogîs like Matsyendra, etc.
21. Having kept both the hands under both the thighs, with the body straight, when one sits calmly in this posture, it is called Swastika.


22. Placing the right ankle on the left side and the left ankle on the right side, makes Gomukha-âsana, having the appearance of a cow.

23. One foot is to be placed on the thigh of the opposite side; and so also the other foot on the opposite thigh. This is called Vîrâsana.

24. Placing the right ankle on the left side of anus, and the left ankle on the right side of it, makes what the Yogîs call Kûrma-âsana.
Kukkuṭa âsana.

25. Taking the posture of Padma-âsana and carrying the hands under the thighs, when the Yogî raises himself above the ground, with his palms resting on the ground, it becomes Kukkuṭa-âsana.

Uttâna Kûrma-âsana.

26. Having assumed Kukkuṭa-âsana, when one grasps his neck by crossing his hands behind his head, and lies in this posture with his back touching the ground, it becomes Uttâna Kûrma-âsana, from its appearance like that of a tortoise.

Dhanura âsana.

27. Having caught the toes of the feet with both the hands and carried them to the ears by drawing the body like a bow, it becomes Dhanura âsana.
28. Having placed the right foot at the root of the left thigh, let the toe be grasped with the right hand passing over the back, and having placed the left foot on the right thigh at its root, let it be grasped with the left hand passing behind the back.
29. This is the âsana, as explained by Śri Matsyanâtha. It increases appetite and is an instrument for destroying the group of the most deadly diseases. Its practice awakens the Kundalinî, stops the nectar shedding from the moon in people.

Paśchima Tâna.

30. Having stretched the feet on the ground, like a stick, and having grasped the toes of both the feet with both the hands, when one sits with his forehead resting on the thighs, it is called Paśchima Tâna. 31. This Paśchima Tâna carries the air from the front to the back part of the body (i.e., to the suṣumna). It kindles gastric fire, reduces obesity and cures all diseases of men.


32. Place the palms of both the hands on the ground, and place the navel on both the elbows and balancing thus, the body should be stretched backward like a stick.
33. This is called Mayûra-âsana. This Âsana soon destroys all diseases, and removes abdominal disorders, and also those arising from irregularities of phlegm, bile and wind, digests unwholesome food taken in excess, increases appetite and destroys the most deadly poison.


34. Lying down on the ground, like a corpse, is called Śava-âsana. It removes fatigue and gives rest to the mind.
35. Śiva taught 84 âsanas. Of these the first four being essential ones, I am going to explain them here.
36. These four are:—The Siddha, Padma, Sinha and Bhadra. Even of these, the Siddha-âsana, being very comfortable, one should always practise it.

The Siddhâsana

37. Press firmly the heel of the left foot against the perineum, and the right heel above the male organ. With the chin pressing on the chest, one should sit calmly, having restrained the senses, and gaze steadily the space between the eyebrows. This is called the Siddha Âsana, the opener of the door of salvation.
38. This Siddhâsana is performed also by placing the left heel on Meḍhra (above the male organ), and then placing the right one on it.
39. Some call this Siddhâsana, some Vajrâsana. Others call it Mukta Âsana or Gupta Âsana.
40. Just as sparing food is among Yamas, and Ahiṃsâ among the Niyamas, so is Siddhâsana called by adepts the chief of all the âsanas.
41. Out of the 84 Âsanas Siddhâsana should always be practised, because it cleanses the impurities of 72,000 nâḍîs.
42. By contemplating on oneself, by eating sparingly, and by practising Siddhâsana for 12 years, the Yogî obtains success.
43. Other postures are of no use, when success has been achieved in Siddhâsana, and Prâṇa Vâyû becomes calm and restrained by Kevala Kumbhaka.
44. Success in one Siddhâsana alone becoming firmly established, one gets Unmanî at once, and the three bonds (Bandhas) are accomplished of themselves.
45. There is no Âsana like the Siddhâsana and no Kumbhaka like the Kevala. There is no mudrâ like the Khechari and no laya like the Nâda (Anâhata Nâda.)


46. Place the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh, and grasp the toes with the hands crossed over the back. Press the chin against the chest and gaze on the tip of the nose. This is called the Padmâsana, the destroyer of the diseases of the Yamîs.
47. Place the feet on the thighs, with the soles upwards, and place the hands on the thighs, with the palms upwards.
48. Gaze on the tip of the nose, keeping the tongue pressed against the root of the teeth of the upper jaw, and the chin against the chest, and raise the air up slowly, i.e., pull the apâna-vâyû gently upwards.
49. This is called the Padmâsana, the destroyer of all diseases. It is difficult of attainment by everybody, but can be learnt by intelligent people in this world.
50. Having kept both the hands together in the lap, performing the Padmâsana firmly, keeping the chin Fixed to the chest and contemplating on Him in the mind, by drawing the apâna-vâyû up (performing Mûla Bandha) and pushing down the air after inhaling it, joining thus the prâṇa and apâna in the navel, one gets the highest intelligence by awakening the śakti (kundalinî) thus. NḄ.—When Apâna Vâyû is drawn gently up and after filling in the lungs with the air from outside, the prâṇa is forced down by and by so as to join both of them in the navel, they both enter then the Kundalinî and, reaching the Brahma randhra (the great hole), they make the mind calm. Then the mind can contemplate on the nature of the âtmana and can enjoy the highest bliss.
51. The Yogî who, sitting with Padmâsana, can control breathing, there is no doubt, is free from bondage.
The Siṃhâsana.
52. Press the heels on both sides of the seam of Perineum, in such a way that the left heel touches the right side and the right heel touches the left side of it.
53. Place the hands on the thighs, with stretched fingers, and keeping the mouth open and the mind collected, gaze on the tip of the nose.
54. This is Siṃhâsana, held sacred by the best of Yogîs. This excellent Âsana effects the completion of the three Bandhas (The Mûlabandha, Kanṭha or Jâlandhar Bandha and Uḍḍiyâna Bandha).
The Bhadrâsana.
55. Place the heels on either side of the seam of the Perineum, keeping the left heel on the left side and the right one on the right side, hold the feet firmly joined to one another with both the hands.
56. This Bhadrâsana is the destroyer of all the diseases.
57. The expert Yogîs call this Gorakśa âsana. By sitting with this âsana, the Yogî gets rid of fatigue.
58. The Nâdis should be cleansed of their impurities by performing the mudrâs, etc., (which are the practices relating to the air) Âsanas, Kumbhakas and various curious mûdrâs.
59. By regular and close attention to Nâda (anâhata nâda) in Haṭha Yoga, a Brahmachari, sparing in diet, unattached to objects of enjoyment, and devoted to Yoga, gains success, no doubt, within a year.
60. Abstemious feeding is that in which ¾ of hunger is satisfied with food, well cooked with ghee and sweets, and eaten with the offering of it to Śiva.
Foods injurious to a Yogî.
61.Bitter, sour, saltish, hot, green vegetables, fermented, oily, mixed with til seed, rape seed, intoxicating liquors, fish, meat, curds, chhaasa pulses, plums, oil-cake, asafœtida (hînga), garlic, onion, etc., should not be eaten.
62. Food heated again, dry, having too much salt, sour, minor grains, and vegetables that cause burning sensation, should not be eaten, Fire, women, travelling, etc., should be avoided.
63. As said by Gorakṣa, one should keep aloof from the society of the evil-minded, fire, women, travelling, early morning bath, fasting, and all kinds of bodily exertion.
64. Wheat, rice, barley, shâstik (a kind of rice), good corns, milk, ghee, sugar, butter, sugarcandy, honey, dried ginger, Parwal (a vegetable) the five vegetables, moong, pure water, these are very beneficial to those who practise Yoga.
65. A Yogî should eat tonics (things giving strength), well sweetened, greasy (made with ghee), milk, butter, etc., which may increase humors of the body, according to his desire.
66. Whether young, old or too old, sick or lean, one who discards laziness, gets success if he practises Yoga.
67. Success comes to him who is engaged in the practice. How can one get success without practice; for by merely reading books on Yoga, one can never get success.
68. Success cannot be attained by adopting a particular dress (Veṣa). It cannot be gained by telling tales. Practice alone is the means to success. This is true, there is no doubt.
69. Âsanas (postures), various Kumbhakas, and other divine means, all should be practised in the practice of Haṭha Yoga, till the fruit—Râja Yoga—is obtained.


On Prâṇâyâma.

1.Posture becoming established, a Yogî, master of himself, eating salutary and moderate food, should practise Prâṇâyâma, as instructed by his guru.
2. Respiration being disturbed, the mind becomes disturbed. By restraining respiration, the Yogî gets steadiness of mind
3. So long as the (breathing) air stays in the body, it is called life. Death consists in the passing out of the (breathing) air. It is, therefore, necessary to restrain the breath.
4. The breath does not pass through the middle channel (suṣumnâ), owing to the impurities of the nâdîs. How can then success be attained, and how can there be the unmanî avasthâ.
5. When the whole system of nâdîs which is full of impurities, is cleaned, then the Yogî becomes able to control the


6. Therefore, Prâṇâyâma should be performed daily with sâtwika buddhi (intellect free from raja and tama or activity and sloth), in order to drive out the impurities of the suṣumnâ.

Method of performing Prâṇâyâma.

7. Sitting in the Padmâsana posture the Yogî should fill in the air through the left nostril (closing the right one); and,
8. keeping it confined according to one’s ability, it should be expelled slowly through the sûrya (right nostril). Then, drawing in the air through the sûrya (right nostril) slowly, the belly should be filled, and after performing Kumbhaka as before, it should be expelled slowly through the chandra (left nostril).
9. Inhaling thus through the one, through which it was expelled, and having restrained it there, till possible, it should be exhaled through the other, slowly and not forcibly.
10. If the air be inhaled through the left nostril, it should be expelled again through the other, and filling it through the right nostril, confining it there, it should be expelled through the left nostril. By practising in this way, through the right and the left nostrils alternately, the whole of the collection of the nâdîs of the yamîs (practisers) becomes clean, i.e., free from impurities, after 3 months and over.
11. Kumbhakas should be performed gradually 4 times during day and night, i.e., (morning, noon, evening and midnight), till the number of Kumbhakas for one time is 80 and for day and night together it is 320.
12. In the beginning there is perspiration, in the middle stage there is quivering, and in the last or the 3rd stage one obtains steadiness; and then the breath should be made steady or motionless.
13. The perspiration exuding from exertion of practice should be rubbed into the body (and not wiped), as by so doing the body becomes strong.
14. During the first stage of practice the food consisting of milk and ghee is wholesome. When the practice becomes established, no such restriction is necessary.
15. Just as lions, elephants and tigers are controlled by and by, so the breath is controlled by slow degrees, otherwise (i.e., by being hasty or using too much force) it kills the practiser himself.
16. When Prâṇayama, etc., are performed properly, they eradicate all diseases; but an improper practice generates diseases.
17. Hiccough, asthma, cough, pain in the head, the ears, and the eyes; these and other various kinds of diseases are generated by the disturbance of the breath.
18. The air should be expelled with proper tact and should be filled in skilfully; and when it has been kept confined properly it brings success.

NḄ.—The above caution is necessary to warn the aspirants against omitting any instruction; and, in their zeal to gain success or siddhis early, to begin the practice, either by using too much force in filling in, confining and expelling the air, or by omitting any instructions, it may cause unnecessary pressure on their ears, eyes, and cause pain. Every word in the instructions is full of meaning and is necessarily used in the slokas, and should be followed very carefully and with due attention. Thus there will be nothing to fear whatsoever. We are inhaling and exhaling the air throughout our lives without any sort of danger, and Prâṇayama being only a regular form of it, there should be no cause to fear.

19. When the nâdîs become free from impurities, and there appear the outward signs of success, such as lean body and glowing colour, then one should feel certain of success. 19.
20. By removing the impurities, the air can be restrained, according to one’s wish and the appetite is increased, the divine sound is awakened, and the body becomes healthy.
21. If there be excess of fat or phlegm in the body, the six kinds of kriyâs (duties) should be performed first. But others, not suffering from the excess of these, should not perform them.
22. The six kinds of duties are: Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Trâtaka, Nauti and Kapâla Bhâti. These are called the six actions वटूकमि.
23. These six kinds of actions which cleanse the body should be kept secret. They produce extraordinary attributes and are performed with earnestness by the best of Yogîs.
The Dhauti (धौति)
24. A strip of cloth, about 3 inches wide and 15 cubits long, is pushed in (swallowed), when moist with warm water, through the passage shown by the guru, and is taken out again. This is called Dhauti Karma.
NḄ.—The strip should be moistened with a little warm water, and the end should be held with the teeth. It is swallowed slowly, little by little; thus, first day 1 cubit, 2nd day 2 cubits, 3rd day 3 cubits, and so on. After swallowing it the stomach should be given a good, round motion from left to right, and then it should be taken out slowly and gently.
25. There is no doubt, that cough, asthma, enlargement of the spleen, leprosy, and 20 kinds of diseases born of phlegm, disappear by the practice of Dhauti Karma.
The Basti (बस्तिकर्म)
26. Squatting in navel-deep water, and introducing a six inches long, smooth piece of ½ an inch diameter pipe, open at both ends, half inside the anus; it (anus) should he drawn up (contracted) and then expelled. This washing is called the Basti Karma.
27. By practising this Basti Karma, colic, enlarged spleen, and dropsy, arising from the disorders of Vâta (air), pitta (bile) and kapha (phlegm), are all cured.
28. By practising Basti with water, the Dhâtâs, the Indriyas and the mind become calm. It gives glow and tone to the body and increases the appetite. All the disorders disappear.
The Neti (नेति).
29. A cord made of threads and about six inches long, should be passed through the passage of the nose and the end taken out in the mouth. This is called by adepts the Neti Karma.
30. The Neti is the cleaner of the brain and giver of divine sight. It soon destroys all the diseases of the cervical and scapular regions.
The Trâtaka (तराटक).
31. Being calm, one should gaze steadily at a small mark, till eyes are filled with tears. This is called Trataka by âchâryas.
32. Trâtaka destroys the eye diseases and removes sloth, etc. It should be kept secret very carefully, like a box of jewellery.
The Nauli (नौलि).
33. Sitting on the toes with heels raised above the ground, and the palms resting on the ground, and in this bent posture the belly is moved forcibly from left to right just, as in vomiting. This is called by adepts the Nauli Karma.
34. It removes dyspepsia, increases appetite and digestion, and is like the goddess of creation, and causes happiness. It dries up all the disorders. This Nauli is an excellent exercise in Haṭha Yoga.
The Kapâla Bhâti कपाल भाति.
35. When inhalation and exhalation are performed very quickly, like a pair of bellows of a blacksmith, it dries up all the disorders from the excess of phlegm, and is known as Kapâla Bhâti.
36. When Prâṇâyâma is performed after getting rid of obesity born of the defects phlegm, by the performance of the six duties, it easily brings success.
37. Some âchâryâs (teachers) do not advocate any other practice, being of opinion that all the impurities are dried up by the practice of Prâṇâyâma.
Gaja Karaṇi (गजकरणी)
38. By carrying the Apâna Vâyû up to the throat, the food, etc., in the stomach are vomited. By degrees, the system of Nâdîs (Śankhinî) becomes known. This is called in Haṭha as Gaja Karaṇi.
39. Brahmâ, and other Devas were always engaged in the exercise of Prâṇâyâma, and, by means of it, got rid of the fear of death. Therefore, one should practise prâṇâyâma regularly.
40. So long as the breath is restrained in the body, so long as the mind is undisturbed, and so long as the gaze is fixed between the eyebrows, there is no fear from Death.
41. When the system of Nâdis becomes clear of the impurities by properly controlling the prâṇa, then the air, piercing the entrance of the Suśumṇâ, enters it easily.
Manomanî. (मनोन्मनी)
42. Steadiness of mind comes when the air moves Freely in the middle. That is the manonmanî (मनोन्मनी) condition, which is attained when the mind becomes calm.
43. To accomplish it, various Kumbhakas are performed by those who are expert in the methods; for, by the practice of different Kumbhakas, wonderful success is attained.
Different hinds of Kumbhakas.
44. Kumbhakas are of eight kinds, viz., Sûrya Bhedan, Ujjâyî, Sîtkarî, Sîtalî, Bhastrikâ, Bhrâmarî, Mûrchhâ, and Plâvinî.
45. At the end of Pûraka, Jâlandhara Bandha should be performed, and at the end of Kumbhaka, and at the beginning of Rechaka, Uddiyâna Bandha should be performed. NḄ.—Pûraka is filling in of the air from outside.
46. Kumbhaka is the keeping the air confined inside. Rechaka is expelling the confined air. The instructions for Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka will be found at their proper place and should he carefully followed. By drawing up from below (Mûla Bandha) and contracting the throat (Jâlandhara Bandha) and by pulling back the middle of the front portion of the body (i.e., belly), the Prâṇa goes to the Brahma Nâdî (Suṣumnâ).
47. The middle hole, through the vertebral column, through which the spinal cord passes, is called the Suṣumnâ Nâdî of the Yogîs. The two other sympathetic cords, one on each aide of the spinal cord, are called the Idâ and the Pingalâ Nâdîs. These will be described later on. By pulling up the Apâna Vâyu and by forcing the Prâṇa Vâyu down the throat, the Yogî, liberated from old age, becomes young, as it were 16 years old. Note.— The seat of the Prâṇa is the heart; of the Apâna anus; of the Samâna the region about the navel; of the Udâna the throat; while the Vyâna moves throughout the body.
Sûrya Bhedana (सूर्य भेदन).
48. Taking any comfortable posture and performing the âsana, the Yogî should draw in the air slowly, through the right nostril.
49. Then it should be confined within, so that it fills from the nails to the tips of the hair, and then let out through the left nostril slowly. Note.—This is to be done alternately with both the nostrils, drawing in through the one, expelling through the other, and vice versa.
50. This excellent Sûrya Bhedana cleanses the forehead (frontal sinuses), destroys the disorders of Vâta, and removes the worms, and, therefore, it should be performed again and again.


1. I am going to describe the procedure of the practice of Yoga, in order that Yogîs may succeed. A wise man should leave his bed in the Uṣâ Kâla (i.e., at the peep of dawn or 4 o’clock) in the morning.
2. Remembering his guru over his head, and his desired deity in his heart, after answering the calls of nature, and cleaning his mouth, he should apply Bhaṣma (ashes).
3. In a clean spot, clean room and charming ground, he should spread a soft âsana (cloth for sitting on). Having seated on it and remembering, in his mind his guru and his God.
4. Having extolled the place and the time and taking up the vow thus: ‘To day by the grace of God, I will perform Prâṇâyâmas with âsanas for gaining samâdhi (trance) and its fruits.’ He should salute the infinite Deva, Lord of the Nâgas, to ensure success in the âsanas (postures).
5. Salutation to the Lord of the Nâgas, who is adorned with thousands of heads, set with brilliant jewels (maṇis), and who has sustained the whole universe, nourishes it, and is infinite. After this he should begin his exercise of âsanas and when fatigued, he should practise Śava âsana. Should there be no fatigue, he should not practise it.
6. Before Kumbhaka, he should perform Viparîta Karṇî mudrâ, in order that he may be able to perform Jâlandhar bandha comfortably.
7. Sipping a little water, he should begin the exercise of Prâṇâyâma, after saluting Yogindras, as described in the Karma Parana, in the words of Śiva.
8. Such as “Saluting Yogindras and their disciples and gurû Vinâyaka, the Yogî should unite with me with composed mind.”
9. While practising, he should sit with Siddhâsana, and having performed bandha and Kumbhaka, should begin with 10 Prâṇâyâmas the first day, and go on increasing 5 daily.
10. With composed mind 80 Kumbhakas should be performed at a time; beginning first with the chandra (the left nostril) and then sûrya (the right nostril).
11-12. This has been spoken of by wise men as Aṇuloma and Viloma. Having practised Sûrya Bhedan, with Bandhas, the wise rust) should practise Ujjâyî and then Sîtkârî Śîtalî, and Bhastrikâ, he may practice others or not.
13. He should practise mudrâs properly, as instructed by his guru. Then sitting with Padmâsana, he should hear anâhata nâda attentively.
14. He should resign the fruits of all his practice reverently to God, and, on rising on the completion of the practice, a warm bath should be taken.
15. The bath should bring all the daily duties briefly to an end. At noon also a little rest should be taken at the end of the exercise, and then food should be taken.
16. Yogîs should always take wholesome food and never anything unwholesome. After dinner he should eat Ilâchî or lavanga.
17. Some like camphor, and betel leaf. To the Yogîs, practising Prâṇâyâma, betel leaf without powders, i, e., lime, nuts and kâtha, is beneficial.
18. After taking food he should read books treating of salvation, or hear Purâṇas and repeat the name of God.
19. In the evening the exercise should be begun after finishing sandyhâ, as before, beginning the practice 3 ghatikâ or one hour before the sun sets.
20. Evening sandhyâ should always be performed after practice, and Haṭha Yoga should be practised at midnight.
21. Viparîta Karṇi is to be practised in the evening and at midnight, and not just after eating, as it does no good at this time.

Ujjâyî (उज्जायी)

51. Having closed the opening of the Nâdî (Larynx), the air should be drawn in such a way that it goes touching from the throat to the chest, and making noise while passing.
52. It should be restrained, as before, and then let out through Idâ (the left nostril). This removes śleṣmâ (phlegm) in the throat and increases the appetite.
53. It destroys the defects of the nâdîs, dropsy and disorders of Dhâtu (humours). Ujjâyî should be performed in all conditions of life, even while walking or sitting.

Sîtkârî (सीत्कारी)

54. Sîtkârî is performed by drawing in the air through the mouth, keeping the tongue between the lips. The air thus drawn in should not be expelled through the mouth. By practising in this way, one becomes next to the God of Love in beauty.
55. He is regarded adorable by the Yoginîs and becomes the destroyer of the cycle of creation, He is not afflicted with hunger, thirst, sleep or lassitude.
56. The Satwa of his body becomes free from all the disturbances. In truth, he becomes the lord of the Yogîs in this world.

Śîtalî (शीतली)

57. As in the above (Sîtkári), the tongue to be protruded a little out of the lips, when the air is drawn in. It is kept confined, as before, and then expelled slowly through the nostrils.

This Śîtalî Ḳumbhikâ cures colic, (enlarged) spleen, fever, disorders of bile, hunger, thirst, and counteracts poisons.

The Bhastrikâ (भस्त्रिका)

59. The Padma Âsana consists in crossing the feet and placing them on both the thighs; it is the destroyer of all sins.
60. Binding the Padma-Âsana and keeping the body straight, closing the mouth carefully, let the air be expelled through the nose.
61. It should be filled up to the lotus of the heart, by drawing it in with force, making noise and touching the throat, the chest and the head.
62. It should he expelled again and filled again and again as before, just as a pair of bellows of the blacksmith is worked.
63. In the same way, the air of the body should be moved intelligently, filling it through Sûrya when fatigue is experienced.
64. The air should be drawn in through the right nostril by pressing the thumb against the left side of the nose, so as to close the left nostril; and when filled to the full, it should be closed with the fourth finger (the one next to the little finger) and kept confined.
65. Having confined it properly, it should be expelled through the Idâ (left nostril). This destroys Vâta, pitta (bile) and phlegm and increases the digestive power (the gastric fire).
66. It quickly awakens the Kuṇḍalinî, purifies the system, gives pleasure, and is beneficial. It destroys phlegm and the impurities accumulated at the entrance of the Brahma Nâdî.
67. This Bhastrikâ should be performed plentifully, for it breaks the three knots: Brahma granthi (in the chest), Viṣṇu granthi (in the throat), and Rudra granthi (between the eyebrows) of the body.

The Bhrâmari (भरामरी)

68. By filling the air with force, making noise like Bhringi (wasp), and expelling it slowly, making noise in the same way; this practice causes a sort of ecstacy in the minds of Yogîndras.

The Mûrchhâ (मूर्छा).

69. Closing the passages with Jâlandhar Bandha firmly at the end of Pûraka, and expelling the air slowly, is called Mûrchhâ, from its causing the mind to swoon and giving comfort.

The Plâvinî (पलाविनी).

70. When the belly is filled with air and the inside of the body is filled to its utmost with air, the body floats on the deepest water, like the leaf of a lotus.
71. Considering Pûraka (Filling), Rechaka (expelling) and Kumbhaka (confining), Prâṇâyâma is of three kinds, but considering it accompanied by Pûraka and Rechaka, and without these, it is of two kinds only, i.e., Sahita (with) and Kevala (alone).
72. Exercise in Sahita should be continued till success in Kevala is gained. This latter is simply confining the air with ease, without Rechaka and Pûraka.
73. In the practice of Kevala Prâṇâyâma when it can be performed successfully without Rechaka and Pûraka, then it is called Kevala Kumbhaka.
74. There is nothing in the three worlds which may be difficult to obtain for him who is able to keep the air confined according to pleasure, by means of Kevala Kumbhaka.
75. He obtains the position of Râja Yoga undoubtedly. Kuṇḍalinî awakens by Kumbhaka, and by its awakening, Suṣumnâ becomes free from impurities.
76. No success in Râja Yoga without Haṭha Yoga, and no success in Haṭha Yoga without Râja Yoga. One should, therefore, practise both of these well, till complete success is gained. .
77. On the completion of Kumbhaka, the mind should be given rest. By practising in this way one is raised to the position of (succeeds in getting) Râja Yoga.
Indications of success in the practice of Haṭha Yoga.
78. When the body becomes lean, the face glows with delight, Anâhatanâda manifests, and eyes are clear, body is healthy, bindu under control, and appetite increases, then one should know that the Nâdîs are purified and success in Haṭha Yoga is approaching.


On Mudrâs.

1. As the chief of the snakes is the support of the earth with all the mountains and forests on it, so all the Tantras (Yoga practices) rest on the Kuṇḍalinî. (The Vertebral column.)
2. When the sleeping Kuṇḍalinî awakens by favour of a guru, then all the lotuses (in the six chakras or centres) and all the knots are pierced through. .
3. Suṣumnâ (Sûnya Padavî) becomes a main road for the passage of Prâṇa, and the mind then becomes free from all connections (with its objects of enjoyments) and Death is then evaded.
4. Suṣumnâ, Sunya Padavî, Brahma Randhra, Mahâ Patha, Śmaśâna, Śambhavî, Madhya Mârga, are names of one and the same thing.
5. In order, therefore, to awaken this goddess, who is sleeping at the entrance of Brahma Dwâra (the great door), mudrâs should be practised well.

The mudrâs.
6. Mahâ Mudrâ, Mahâ Bandha, Mahâ Vedha, Khecharî, Uḍḍiyâna Bandha, Mûla Bandha, Jâlandhara Bandha.
7. Viparîta Karaṇî, Vajroli, and Śakti Châlana. These are the ten Mudrâs which annihilate old age and death.
8. They have been explained by Âdi Nâtha (Śiva) and give eight kinds of divine wealth. They are loved by all the Siddhas and are hard to attain even by the Marutas.

Note.—The eight Aiśwaryas are: Aṇimâ (becoming small, like an atom), Mahimâ (becoming great, like âkâs, by drawing in atoms of Prakṛiti), Garimâ (light things, like cotton becoming very heavy like mountains.) Prâpti (coming within easy reach of everything; as touching the moon with the little finger, while standing on the earth.) Prâkâmya (non-resistance to the desires, as entering the earth like water.) Îsatâ (mastery over matter and objects made of it.) Vaśitwa (controlling the animate and inanimate objects.) These Mudrâs should be kept secret by every means, as one keeps one’s box of jewellery, and should, on no account be told to any one, just as husband and wife keep their dealings secret.

9. The mahâ mudrâ.
10. Pressing the Yoni (perineum) with the heel of the left foot, and stretching forth the right foot, its toe should be grasped by the thumb and first finger.
11. By stopping the throat (by Jâlandhara Bandha) the air is drawn in from the outside and carried down. Just as a snake struck with a stick becomes straight like a stick, in the same way, śakti (suṣumnâ) becomes straight at once.
12. Then the Kuṇḍalinî, becoming as it were dead, and,leaving both the Idâ and the Pingalâ, enters the suṣumnâ (the middle passage).
13. It should be expelled then, slowly only and not violently. For this very reason, the best of the wise men call it the Mahâ Mudrâ. This Mahâ Mudrâ has been propounded by great masters.
14. Great evils and pains, like death, are destroyed by it, and for this reason wise men call it the Mahâ Mudrâ.
15. Having practised with the left nostril, it should be practised with the right one; and, when the number on both sides becomes equal, then the mudrâ should be discontinued.
16. There is nothing wholesome or injurious; for the practice of this mudrâ destroys the injurious effects of all the rasas (chemicals). Even the deadliest of poisons, if taken, acts like nectar.
17. Consumption, leprosy, prolapsus anii, colic, and the diseases due to indigestion,—all these irregularities are removed by the practice of this Mahâ Mudrâ.
18. This Mahâ Mudrâ has been described as the giver of great success (Siddhi) to men. It should be kept secret by every effort, and not revealed to any and everyone.

The Mahâ Bandha.

19. Press the left heel to the perineum and place the right foot on the left thigh.
20. Fill in the air, keeping the chin firm against the chest, and, having pressed the air, the mind should he fixed on the middle of the eyebrows or in the suṣumnâ (the spine).
21. Having kept it confined so long as possible, it should be expelled slowly. Having practised on the left side, it should be practised on the right side.
22. Some are of opinion that the closing of throat is not necessary here, for keeping the tongue pressed against the roots of the upper teeth makes a good bandha (stop).
23. This stops the upward motion of all the Nâdîs. Verily this Mahâ Bandha is the giver of great Siddhis.
24. This Mahâ Bandha is the most skilful means for cutting away the snares of death. It brings about the conjunction of the Trivenî (Idâ, Pingalâ and Suṣumnâ) and carries the mind to Kedâr (the space between the eyebrows, which is the seat of Śiva).
25. As beauty and loveliness, do not avail a woman without husband, so the Mahâ Mudrâ and the Mahâ-Bandha are useless without the Mahâ Vedha.

The Mahâ Vedha.

26. Sitting with Mahâ Bandha, the Yogî should fill in the air and keep his mind collected. The movements of the Vâyus (Prâṇa and Apâna) should be stopped by closing the throat.)
27. Resting both the hands equally on the ground, he should raise himself a little and strike his buttocks against the ground gently. The air, leaving both the passages (Idâ and Pingalâ), starts into the middle one.
28. The union of the Idâ and the Pingalâ is effected, in order to bring about immortality. When the air becomes as it were dead (by leaving its course through the Idâ and the Pingalâ) (i.e., when it has been kept confined), then it should be expelled.
29. The practice of this Mahâ Vedha, the giver of great Siddhis, destroys old age, grey hair, and shaking of the body, and therefore it is practised by the best masters.
30. These THREE are the great secrets. They are the destroyers of old age and death, increase the appetite, confer the accomplishments of Anima, etc.
31. They should, be practised in 8 ways, daily and hourly. They increase collection of good actions and lessen the evil ones. People, instructed well, should begin their practice, little by little, first.

The Khechari.

32. The Khechari Mudrâ is accomplished by thrusting the tongue into the gullet, by turning it over itself, and keeping the eyesight in the middle of the eyebrows.
33. To accomplish this, the tongue is lengthened by cutting the frænum linguæ, moving, and pulling it. When it can touch the space between the eyebrows, then Khechari can be accomplished.
34. Taking a sharp, smooth, and clean instrument, of the shape of a cactus leaf, the frænum of the tongue should be cut a little (as much as a hair’s thickness), at a time.
35. Then rock salt and yellow myrobalan (both powdered) should be rubbed in. On the 7th day, it should again be cut a hair’s breadth.
36. One should go on doing thus, regularly for six months. At the end of six months, the frænum of the tongue will be completely cut.
37. Turning the tongue upwards, it is fixed on the three ways (œsophagus, windpipe and palate.) Thus it makes the Khechari Mudrâ, and is called the Vyoma Chakra.
38. The Yogî who sits for a minute turning his tongue upwards, is saved from poisons, diseases, death, old age, etc.
39. He who knows the Khechari Mudrâ is not afflicted with disease, death, sloth, sleep, hunger, thirst, and swooning.
40. He who knows the Khechari Mudrâ, is not troubled by diseases, is not stained with karmas, and is not snared by time.
41. The Siddhas have devised this Khechari Mudrâ from the fact that the mind and the tongue reach âkâśa by its practice.
42. If the hole behind the palate be stopped with Khechari by turning the tongue upwards, then bindu cannot leave its place even if a woman were embraced.
43. If the Yogî drinks Somarasa (juice) by sitting with the tongue turned backwards and mind concentrated, there is no doubt he conquers death within 15 days.
44. If the Yogî, whose body is full of Somarasa (juice), were bitten by Takshaka (snake), its poison cannot permeate his body.
45. As fire is inseparably connected with the wood and light is connected with the wick and oil, so does the soul not leave the body full of nectar exuding from the Soma.
46. Note.—Soma (Chandra) is described later on located in the thousand-petalled lotus in the human brain, and is the same as is seen on Śivas’ head in pictures, and from which a sort of juice exudes. It is the retaining of this exudation which makes one immortal. Those who eat the flesh of the cow and drink the immortal liquor daily, are regarded by me men of noble family. Others are but a disgrace to their families. 46.
47. Note.—Translation: Fortunate are the parents and blessed is the country and the family where a Yogî is born. Anything given to such a Yogî, becomes immortal. One, who discriminates between Puruṣa and Prakṛiti, purges the sins of a million incarnations, by seeing, speaking, and touching such men (i.e., Yogî.) A Yogî far exceeds a thousand householders, a hundred vânaprasthas, and a thousand Brahmacharîs. Who can know the reality of the Raja Yoga? That country is very sacred where resides a man who knows it. By seeing and honouring him, generations of ignorant men get mokṣa, what to speak of those who are actually engaged in it. He who knows internal and external yoga, deserves adoration from you and me, what if he is adored by the rest of mankind! Those who engage in the great yoga, once, twice or thrice daily, are to be known as masters of great wealth (maheshwaras) or Lords. The word गी means tongue; eating it is thrusting it in the gullet which destroys great sins.
48. Immortal liquor is the nectar exuding from the moon (Chandra situated on the left side of the space between the eyebrows). It is produced by the fire which is generated by thrusting the tongue.
49. If the tongue can touch with its end the hole from which falls the rasa (juice) which is saltish, bitter, sour, milky and similar to ghee and honey, one can drive away disease, destroy old age, can evade an attack of arms, become immortal in eight ways and can attract fairies.
50. He who drinks the clear stream of liquor of the moon (soma) falling from the brain to the sixteen-petalled lotus (in the heart), obtained by means of Prâṇa, by applying the tongue to the hole of the pendant in the palate, and by meditating on the great power (Kuṇḍalinî), becomes free from disease and tender in body, like the stalk of a lotus, and the Yogî lives a very long life.
51. On the top of the Merû (vertebral column), concealed in a hole, is the Somarasa (nectar of Chandra); the wise, whose intellect is not overpowered by Raja and Tama guṇas, but in whom Satwa guṇa is predominant, say there is the (universal spirit) âtma in it. It is the source of the down-going Idâ, Pingalâ and Suṣumnâ Nâdis, which are the Ganges, the Yamuna and the Sarasvati. From that Chandra is shed the essence of the body which causes death of men. It should, therefore, be stopped from shedding. This (Khechari Mudrâ) is a very good instrument for this purpose. There is no other means of achieving this end.
52. This hole is the generator of knowledge and is the source of the five streams (Idâ, Pingalâ, &c.). In that colorless vacuum, Khecharî Mudrâ should be established.
53. There is only one seed germinating the whole universe from it; and there is only one Mudrâ, called Khecharî. There is only one deva (god) without any one’s support, and there is one condition called Manonmaṇi.
The Uḍḍiyâna Bandha.
54. Uḍḍiyâna is so called by the Yogîs, because by its practice the Prâṇa (Vâyu,) flies (flows) in the Suṣumnâ.
55. Uḍḍiyâna is so called, because the great bird, Prâṇa, tied to it, flies without being fatigued. It is explained below.
56. The belly above the navel is pressed backwards towards the spine. This Uḍḍiyâna Bandha is like a lion for the elephant of death.
57. Uḍḍiyâna is always very easy, when learnt from a guru. The practiser of this, if old, becomes young again.
58. The portions above and below the navel, should be drawn backwards towards the spine. By practising this for six months one can undoubtedly conquer death.
59. Of all the Bandhas, Uḍḍiyâna is the best; for by binding it firmly liberation comes spontaneously.
The Mûla Bandha.
60. Pressing Yoni (perineum) with the heel, contract up the anus. By drawing the Apâna thus, Mûla Bandha is made.
61. The Apâna, naturally inclining downward, is made to go up by force. This Mûla Bandha is spoken of by Yogîs as done by contracting the anus.
62. Pressing the heel well against the anus, draw up the air by force, again and again till it (air) goes up. 63. Prâṇa, Apâna, Nâda and Bindu uniting into one in this way, give success in Yoga, undoubtedly.
64. By the purification of Prâṇa, and Apâna, urine and excrements decrease. Even an old man becomes young by constantly practising Mûla Bandha.
65. Going up, the Apâna enters the zone of fire, i.e., the stomach. The flame of fire struck by the air is thereby lengthened.
66. Note.—In the centre of the body is the seat of fire, like heated gold. In men it is triangular, in quadrupeds square, in birds circular. There is a long thin flame in this fire. It is gastric fire.
These, fire and Apâna, go to the naturally hot Prâṇa, which, becoming inflamed thereby, causes burning sensation in the body.
67. The Kuṇḍalinî, which has been sleeping all this time, becomes well heated by this means and awakens well. It becomes straight like a serpent, struck dead with a stick.
68. It enters the Brahma Nâdî, just as a serpent enters its hole. Therefore, the Yogî should always practise this Mûla Bandha. 68.
The Jâlandhara Bandha.

69. Contract the throat and press the chin firmly against the chest. This is called Jâlandhara Bandha, which destroys old age and death.
70. It stops the opening (hole) of the group of the Nâdîs, through which the juice from the sky (from the Soma or Chandra in the brain) falls down. It is, therefore, called the Jâlandhara Bandha —the destroyer of a host of diseases of the throat.
71. In Jâlandhara Bandha, the indications of a perfect contraction of throat are, that the nectar does not fall into the fire (the Sûrya situated in the navel), and the air is not disturbed.
72. The two Nâdîs should be stopped firmly by contracting the throat. This is called the middle circuit or centre (Madhya Chakra), and it stops the 16 âdhâras (i.e., vital parts).
Note.— The sixteen vital parts mentioned by renowned Yogîs are the (1) thumbs, (2) ankles, (3) knees, (4) thighs, (5) the prepuce, (6) organs of generation, (17) the navel, (8) the heart, (9) the neck, (10) the throat, (11) the palate, (12) the nose, (13) the middle of the eyebrows, (14) the forehead, (15) the head and (16) the Brahma randhra.
73. By drawing up the mûlasthâna (anus,) Uḍḍiyâna Bandha should be performed. The flow of the air should be directed to the Suṣumnâ, by closing the Idâ, and the Pingalâ.
74. The Prâna becomes calm and latent by this means, and thus there is no death, old age, disease, etc.
75. These three Bandhas are the best of all and have been practised by the masters. Of all the means of success in the Haṭha Yoga, they are known to the Yogîs as the chief ones.
76. The whole of the nectar, possessing divine qualities, which exudes from the Soma (Chandra) is devoured by the Sûrya; and, owing to this, the body becomes old.
77. To remedy this, the opening of the Sûrya is avoided by excellent means. It is to be learnt best by instructions from a guru; but not by even a million discussions.

The Viparîta Karaṇî.

78. Above the navel and below the palate respectively, are the Sûrya and the Chandra. The exercise, called the Viparîta Karaṇî, is learnt from the guru’s instructions.
79. This exercise increases the appetite; and, therefore, one who practises it, should obtain a good supply of food. If the food be scanty, it will burn him at once.
80. Place the head on the ground and the feet up into the sky, for a second only the first day, and increase this time daily.
81. After six months, the wrinkles and grey hair are not seen. He who practises it daily, even for two hours, conquers death.

The Vajrolî.

82. Even if one who lives a wayward life, without observing any rules of Yoga, but performs Vajrolî, deserves success and is a Yogî.
83. Two things are necessary for this, and these are difficult to get for the ordinary people—(1) milk and (2) a woman behaving, as desired.
84. By practising to draw in the bindu, discharged during cohabitation, whether one be a man or a woman, one obtains success in the practice of Vajrolî.
85. By means of a pipe, one should blow air slowly into the passage in the male organ.
86. By practice, the discharged bindu is drawn out. One can draw back and preserve one’s own discharged bindu.
87. The Yogî who can protect his bindu thus, overcomes death; because death comes by discharging bindu, and life is prolonged by its preservation.
88. By preserving bindu, the body of the Yogî emits a pleasing smell. There is no fear of death, so long as the bindu is well-established in the body.
89. The bindu of men is under the control of the mind, and life is dependent on the bindu. Hence, mind and bindu should be protected by all means.

The Sahajolî.

90. Sahajolî and Amarolî are only the different kinds of Vajrolî. Ashes from burnt up cowdung should be mixed with water.
91. Being free from the exercise of Vajrolî, man and woman should both rub it on their bodies.
92. This is called Sahajolî, and should be relied on by Yogîs. It does good and gives mokṣa.
93.This Yoga is achieved by courageous wise men, who are free from sloth, and cannot he accomplished by the slothful.

The Amarolî.

94. In the doctrine of the sect of the Kapâlikas, the Amarolî is the drinking of the mid stream; leaving the 1st, as it is a mixture of too much bile and the last, which is useless.
95. He who drinks Amarî, snuffs it daily, and practices Vajrolî, is called practising Amarolî.
96. The bindu discharged in the practice of Vajrolî should be mixed with ashes, and the rubbing it on the best parts of the body gives divine sight.

The Śakti châlana.

97.Kutilângî (crooked-bodied), Kuṇḍalinî, Bhujangî (a she-serpent) Śakti, Iśhwarî, Kundalî, Arundhatî,—all these words are synonymous.
98. As a door is opened with a key, so the Yogî opens the door of mukti by opening Kuṇḍalinî by means of Haṭha Yoga.
99. The Parameśwarî (Kuṇḍalinî) sleeps, covering the hole of the passage by which one can go to the seat of Brahma which is free from pains.
100. Kuṇḍalî Sakti sleeps on the bulb, for the purpose of giving moksa to Yogîs and bondage to the ignorant. He who knows it, knows Yoga.
101. Kuṇḍalî is of a bent shape, and has been described to be like a serpent. He who has moved that Śakti is no doubt Mukta (released from bondage).
102. Youngster Tapaswini (a she-ascetic), lying between the Ganges and the Yamunâ, (Idâ and Pingalâ) should be caught hold of by force, to get the highest position.
103. Idâ is called goddess Ganges, Pingalâ goddess Yamunâ. In the middle of the Idâ and the Pingalâ is the infant widow, Kuṇḍalî.
104. This sleeping she-serpent should be awakened by catching hold of her tail. By the force of Haṭha, the Śakti leaves her sleep, and starts upwards.
105. This she-serpent is situated in Mûlâdhâr. She should be caught and moved daily, morning and evening, for ½ a prahar (1½ hours), by filling with air through Pingalâ by the Paridhana method.
106. The bulb is above the anus, a vitasti (12 angulas) long, and measures 4 angulas (3 inches) in extent and is soft and white, and appears as if a folded cloth.
107. Keeping the feet in Vajra-âsana (Padma-âsana), hold them firmly with the hands. The position of the bulb then will be near the ankle joint, where it should be pressed.
108. The Yogî, sitting with Vajra-âsana and having moved Kuṇḍalî, should perform Bhastrikâ to awaken the Kuṇḍalî soon.
109. Bhânu (Sûrya, near the navel) should be contracted (by contracting the navel) which will move the Kuṇḍalî. There is no fear for him who does so, even if he has entered the mouth of death.
110. By moving this, for two muhûrtas, it is drawn up a little by entering the Suṣumnâ (spinal column). .
111. By this kundalinî leaves the entrance of the Suṣumnâ at once, and the Prâṇa enters it of itself.
112. Therefore, this comfortably sleeping Arundhatî should always be moved; for by so doing the Yogî gets rid of diseases.
113. The Yogî, who has been able to move the Śakti deserves success. It is useless to say more, suffice it to say that he conquers death playfully.
114. The Yogî observing Brahmacharya (continence and always eating sparingly, gets success within 40 days by practice with the Kuṇḍalinî.
115. After moving the Kuṇḍalî, plenty of Bhastrâ should be performed. By such practice, he has no fear from the god of death.
116. There is no other way, but the practice of the Kuṇḍalî, for washing away the impurities of 72,000 Nâdîs.
118. This middle Nâdî becomes straight by steady practice of postures; Prâṇâyâma and Mudrâs of Yogîs.
119. Those whose sleep has decreased by practice and mind has become calm by samâdhi, get beneficial accomplishments by Sâmbhavî and other Mudrâs. Without Raja Yoga, this earth, the night, and the Mudrâs, be they howsoever wonderful, do not appear beautiful.

Note.—Raja Yoga = âsana. Earth = steadiness, calmness. Night = Kumbhaka; cessations of the activity of the Prâṇa, just as King’s officials cease moving at night. Hence night means absence of motion, i.e., Kumbhaka.

120. All the practices relating to the air should be performed with concentrated mind. A wise man should not allow his mind to wander away.
121. These are the Mudrâs, as explained by Âdinâtha (Śiva). Every one of them is the giver of great accomplishments to the practiser.
122. He is really the guru and to be considered as Îśvara in human form who teaches the Mudrâs as handed down from guru to guru.
123. Engaging in practice, by putting faith in his words, one gets the Siddhis of Anima, etc., as also evades death.


On Samâdhi.

1. Salutation to the Gurû, the dispenser of happiness to all, appearing as Nâda, Vindû and Kalâ. One who is devoted to Him, obtains the highest bliss.
2. Now I will describe a regular method of attaining to Samâdhi, which destroys death, is the means for obtaining happiness, and gives the Brahmânanda.
3-4.Raja Yogî, Samâdhi, Unmani, Mauonmanî, Amarativa, Laya, Tatwa, Sûnya, Aśûnya, Parama Pada, Amanaska, Adwaitama, Nirãlamba, Nirañjana, Jîwana Mukti, Sahajâ, Turyâ, are all synonymous.
5. As salt being dissolved in water becomes one with it, so when Âtmâ and mind become one, it is called Samâdhi.
6. When the Prâṇa becomes lean (vigourless) and the mind becomes absorbed, then their becoming equal is called Samâdhi.
7. This equality and oneness of the self and the ultra self, when all Saṃkalpas cease to exist, is called Samâdhi.
8. Or, who can know the true greatness of the Raja Yoga. Knowledge, mukti, condition, and Siddhîs can be learnt by instructions from a gurû alone.
9. Indifference to worldly enjoyments is very difficult to obtain, and equally difficult is the knowledge of the Realities to obtain. It is very difficult to get the condition of Samâdhi, without the favour of a true guru.
10. By means of various postures and different Kumbhakas, when the great power (Kuṇḍalî) awakens, then the Prâṇa becomes absorbed in Sûnya (Samâdhi).
11. The Yogî whose śakti has awakened, and who has renounced all actions, attains to the condition of Samâdhi, without any effort.
12. When the Prâṇa flows in the Suṣumnâ, and the mind has entered śûnya, then the Yogî is free from the effects of Karmas.
13. O Immortal one (that is, the yogi who has attained to the condition of Samâdhi), I salute thee! Even death itself, into whose mouth the whole of this movable and immovable world has fallen, has been conquered by thee.
14. Amarolî, Vajrolî and Sahajolî are accomplished when the mind becomes calm and Prâṇa has entered the middle channel.
15. How can it he possible to get knowledge, so long as the Prâṇa is living and the mind has not died? No one else can get mokṣa, except one who can make one’s Prâṇa and mind latent.
16. Always living in a good locality and having known the secret of the Suṣumnâ, which has a middle course, and making the Vâyu move in it., (the Yogî) should restrain the Vâyu in the Brahma randhra.
17. Time, in the form of night and day, is made by the sun and the moon. That, the Suṣumnâ devours this time (death) even, is a great secret.
18. In this body there are 72,000 openings of Nâdis; of these, the Suṣumnâ, which has the Śâmhhavî Sakti in it, is the only important one, the rest are useless.
19. The Vâyu should be made to enter the Suṣumnâ without restraint by him who has practised the control of breathing and has awakened the Kuṇḍali by the (gastric) fire.
20. The Prâṇa, flowing through the Suṣumnâ, brings about the condition of manonmaṇî; other practices are simply futile for the Yogî.
21. By whom the breathing has been controlled, by him the activities of the mind also have been controlled; and, conversely, by whom the activities of the mind have been controlled, by him the breathing also has been controlled.
22. There are two causes of the activities of the mind: (1) Vâsanâ (desires) and (2) the respiration (the Prâṇa). Of these, the destruction of the one is the destruction of both.
23. Breathing is lessened when the mind becomes absorbed, and the mind becomes absorbed when the Prâṇa is restrained.
24. Both the mind and the breath are united together, like milk and water; and both of them are equal in their activities. Mind begins its activities where there is the breath, and the Parana begins its activities where there is the mind.
25. By the suspension of the one, therefore, comes the suspension of the other, and by the operations of the one are brought about the operations of the other. When they are present, the Indriyas (the senses) remain engaged in their proper functions, and when they become latent then there is moksa. 25.
26.By nature, Mercury and mind are unsteady: there is nothing in the world which cannot be accomplished when these are made steady.
27. O Pârvati! Mercury and breathing, when made steady, destroy diseases and the dead himself comes to life (by their means). By their (proper) control, moving in the air is attained.
28. The breathing is calmed when the mind becomes steady and calm; and hence the preservation of bindu. The preservation of this latter makes the satwa established in the body.
29. Mind is the master of the senses, and the breath is the master of the mind. The breath in its turn is subordinate to the laya (absorption), and that laya depends on the nâda.
30. This very laya is what is called mokṣa, or, being a sectarian, you may not call it mokṣa; but when the mind becomes absorbed, a sort of ecstacy is experienced.
31. By the suspension of respiration and the annihilation of the enjoyments of the senses, when the mind becomes devoid of all the activities and remains changeless, then the Yogî attains to the Laya Stage.
32. When all the thoughts and activities are destroyed, then the Laya Stage is produced, to describe which is beyond the power of speech, being known by self-experience alone.
33. They often speak of Laya, Laya; but what is meant by it? Laya is simply then forgetting of the objects of senses when the Vâsanâs (desires) do not rise into existence again.
The Sâmbhavî Mudrâ.
34. The Vedas and the Śâstras are like ordinary public women. Śâmhhavî Mudrâ is the one, which is secluded like a respectable lady.
35. Aiming at Brahman inwardly, while keeping the sight directed to the external objects, without blinking the eyes, is called the Sâmbhavî Mudrâ, hidden in the Vedas and the Sâstras.
36. When the Yogî remains inwardly attentive to the Brahman, keeping the mind and the Prâṇa absorbed, and the sight steady, as if seeing everything while in reality seeing nothing outside, below, or above, verily then it is called the Sâmbhavî Mudrâ, which is learnt by the favour of a guru. Whatever, wonderful, Sûnya or Asûnya is perceived, is to be regarded as the manifestation of that great Śambhû (Śiva.) .
37. The two states, the Sâmbhavî and the Khecharî, are different because of their seats (being the heart and the space between the eyebrows respectively); but both cause happiness, for the mind becomes absorbed in the Chita-sukha-Rupa-âtmana which is void.
The Unmanî.
38. Fix the gaze on the light (seen on the tip of the nose) and raise the eyebrows a little, with the mind contemplating as before (in the Śambhavî Mudrâ, that is, inwardly thinking of Brahma, but apparently looking outside.) This will create the Unmanî avasthâ at once.

The Târaka.

39. Some are devoted to the Vedas, some to Nigama, while others are enwrapt in Logic, but none knows the value of this mudrâ, which enables one to cross the ocean of existence.
40. With steady calm mind and half closed eyes, fixed on the tip of the nose, stopping the Idâ and the Pingalâ without blinking, he who can see the light which is the all, the seed, the entire brilliant, great Tatwama, approaches Him, who is the great object. What is the use of more talk?
41. One should not meditate on the Linga (i.e., Âtman) in the day (i.e., while Sûrya or Pingalâ is working) or at night (when Idâ is working), but should always contemplate after restraining both.

The Khecharî.

42. When the air has ceased to move in the right and the left nostrils, and has begun to flow in the middle path, then the Khecharî Mudrâ, can be accomplished there. There is no doubt of this.
43. If the Prâṇa can he drawn into the Sûnya (Suṣumnâ), which is between the Idâ and the Pingalâ, and male motionless there, then the Khecharî Mudrâ can truly become steady there.
44. That Mudrâ is called Khecharî which is performed in the supportless space between the Sûrya and the Chandra (the Idâ and the Pingalâ) and called the Vyoma Chakra.
45. The Khecharî which causes the stream to flow from the Chandra (Śoma) is beloved of Śiva. The incomparable divine Suṣumnâ should be closed by the tongue drawn back.
46. It can be closed from the front also (by stopping the movements of the Prâṇa), and then surely it becomes the Khecharî. By practice, this Khecharî leads to Unmanî. .
47. The seat of Śiva is between the eyebrows, and the mind becomes absorbed there. This condition (in which the mind is thus absorbed) is known as Tûrya, and death has no access there.
48. The Khecharî should be practised till there is Yoga-nidrâ (Samâdhi). One who has induced Yoga-nidrâ, cannot fall a victim to death.
49. Freeing the mind from all thoughts and thinking of nothing, one should sit firmly like a pot in the space (surrounded and filled with the ether).
50. As the air, in and out of the body, remains unmoved, so the breath with mind becomes steady in its place (i.e., in Brahma randhra).
51. By thus practising, night and day, the breathing is brought under control, and, as the practice increases, the mind becomes calm and steady.
52. By rubbing the body over with Amrita (exuding from the moon), from head to foot, one gets Mahâkâyâ, i.e., great strength and energy.

End of the Khecharî.

53. Placing the mind into the Kuṇḍalini, and getting the latter into the mind, by looking upon the Buddhi (intellect) with mind (reflexively), the Param Pada (Brahma) should be obtained.
54. Keep the âtmâ inside the Kha (Brahma) and place Brahma inside your âtmâ. Having made everything pervaded with Kha (Brahma), think of nothing else.
55. One should become void in and void out, and voice like a pot in the space. Full in and full outside, like a jar in the ocean.
56. He should be neither of his inside nor of outside world; and, leaving all thoughts, he should think of nothing.
57. The whole of this world and all the schemes of the mind are but the creations of thought. Discarding these thoughts and taking leave of all conjectures, O Râma! obtain peace.
58. As camphor disappears in fire, and rock salt in water, so the mind united with the âtmâ loses its identity.
59. When the knowable, and the knowledge, are both destroyed equally, then there is no second way (i.e., Duality is destroyed).
60. All this movable and immovable world is mind. When the mind has attained to the unmanî avasthâ, there is no dwaita (from the absence of the working of the mind.)
61. Mind disappears by removing the knowable, and, on its disappearance, âtmâ only remains behind. 62. The high-souled Âchâryas (Teachers) of yore gained experience in the various methods of Samâdhi themselves, and then they preached them to others.
63. Salutations to Thee, O Suṣumnâ, to Thee O Kuṇḍalinî, to Thee O Sudhâ, born of Chandra, to Thee O Manomnanî! to Thee O great power, energy and the intelligent spirit.
64. I will describe now the practice of anâhata nâda, as propounded by Gorakṣa Nâtha, for the benefit of those who are unable to understand the principles of knowledge—a method, which is liked by the ignorant also.
65. Âdinâtha propounded 1¼ crore methods of trance, and they are all extant. Of these, the hearing of the anâhata nâda is the Only one, the chief, in my opinion.
66. Sitting with Mukta Âsana and with the Sâmbhavî Madill, the Yogî should hear the sound inside his right ear, with collected mind.
67. The ears, the eyes, the nose, and the mouth should be closed and then the clear sound is heard in the passage of the Suṣumnâ which has been cleansed of all its impurities.
68. In all the Yogas, there are four states: (1) ârambha or the preliminary, (2) Ghata, or the state of a jar, (3) Parichaya (known), (4) niṣpatti (consumate.) 68.

Ârambha Avasthâ.

69. When the Brahma granthi (in the heart) is pierced through by Prâṇâyâma, then a sort of happiness is experienced in the vacuum of the heart, and the anâhat sounds, like various tinkling sounds of ornaments, are heard in the body.
70. In the ârambha, a Yogî’s body becomes divine, glowing, healthy, and emits a divine swell. The whole of his heart becomes void.

The Ghata Avasthâ.

71. In the second stage, the airs are united into one and begin moving in the middle channel. The Yogî’s posture becomes firm, and he becomes wise like a god.
72. By this means the Viṣṇu knot (in the throat) is pierced which is indicated by highest pleasure experienced, And then the Bherî sound (like the beating of a kettle drain) is evolved in the vacuum in the throat.

The Parichaya Avasthâ.

73. In the third stage, the sound of a drum is known to arise in tie Sûnya between the eyebrows, and then the Vâyu goes to the Mahâśûnya, which is the home of all the siddhîs.
74. Conquering, then, the pleasures of the mind, ecstacy is spontaneously produced which is devoid of evils, pains, old age, disease, hunger and sleep.
75. When the Rudra granthi is pierced and the air enters the seat of the Lord (the space between the eyebrows), then the perfect sound like that of a flute is produced.
76. The union of the mind and the sound is called the Râja-Yoga. The (real) Yogî becomes the creator and destroyer of the universe, like God.
77. Perpetual Happiness is achieved by this; I do not care if the mukti be not attained. This happiness, resulting from absorption [in Brahma], is obtained by means of Raja-Yoga.
78. Those who are ignorant of the Râja-Yoga and practise only the Haṭha-Yoga, will, in my opinion, waste their energy fruitlessly.
79. Contemplation on the space between the eyebrows is, in my opinion, best for accomplishing soon the Unmanî state. For people of small intellect, it is a very easy method for obtaining perfection in the Raja-Yoga. The Laya produced by nâda, at once gives experience (of spiritual powers). 79.
80. The happiness which increases in the hearts of Yogiśwaras, who have gained success in Samâdhi by means of attention to the nâda, is beyond description, and is known to Śri Gurû Nâtha alone.
81. The sound which a muni hears by closing his ears with his fingers, should be heard attentively, till the mind becomes steady in it.
82. By practising with this nâda, all other external sounds are stopped. The Yogî becomes happy by overcoming all distractions within 15 days.
83. In the beginning, the sounds heard are of great variety and very loud; but, as the practice increases, they become more and more subtle.
84. In the first stage, the sounds are surging, thundering like the beating of kettle drums and jingling ones. In the intermediate stage, they are like those produced by conch, Mridanga, and bells.
85. In the last stage, the sounds resemble those from tinklets, flute, Vîṇâ, and bee. These various kinds of sounds are heard as being produced in the body.
86. Though hearing loud sounds like those of thunder, kettle drums, etc., one should practise with the subtle sounds also.
87. Leaving the loudest, taking up the subtle one, and leaving the subtle one, taking up the loudest, thus practising, the distracted mind does not wander elsewhere.
88. Wherever the mind attaches itself first, it becomes steady there; and then it becomes absorbed in it.
89. Just as a bee, drinking sweet juice, does not care for the smell of the flower; so the mind, absorbed in the nâda, does not desire the objects of enjoyment.
90. The mind, like an elephant habituated to wander in the garden of enjoyments, is capable of being controlled by the sharp goad of anâhata nâda.
91. The mind, captivated in the snare of nâda, gives up all its activity; and, like a bird with clipped wings, becomes calm at once.
92. Those desirous of the kingdom of Yoga, should take up the practice of hearing the anâhata nâda, with mind collected and free from all cares.
93. Nada is the snare for catching the mind; and, when it is caught like a deer, it can be killed also like it. 94. Nâda is the bolt of the stable door for the horse (the minds of the Yogîs). A Yogî should determine to practise constantly in the hearing of the nâda sounds.
95. Mind gets the properties of calcined mercury. When deprived of its unsteadiness it is calcined, combined with the sulphur of nâda, and then it roams like it in tine supportless âkâśa or Brahma.
96. The mind is like a serpent, forgetting all its unsteadiness by hearing the nâda, it does not run away anywhere.
97. The fire, catching firewood, is extinguished along with it (after burning it up); and so the mind also, working with the nâda, becomes latent along with it.
98. The antahkaraṇa (mind), like a deer, becomes absorbed and motionless on hearing the sound of hells, etc.; and then it is very easy for an expert archer to kill it.
99. The knowable interpenetrates the anâhata sound which is heard, and the mind interpenetrates the knowable. The mind becomes absorbed there, which is the seat of the all-pervading, almighty Lord.
100. So long as the sounds continue, there is the idea of âkâśa. When they disappear, then it is called Para Brahma,


101. Whatever is heard in the form of nâda, is the śakti (power). That which is formless, the final state of the Tatwas, is tile Parameśwara.
102. All the methods of Haṭha are meant for gaining success in the Raja-Yoga; for, the man, who is well-established in the Raja-Yoga, overcomes death.
103. Tatwa is the seed, Haṭha the field; and Indifference (Vairâgya) the water. By the action of these three, the creeper Unmanî thrives very rapidly.
104. All the accumulations of sins are destroyed by practising always with the nâda; and the mind and the airs do certainly become latent in the colorless (Paramâtmana).
105. Such a one. does not hear the noise of the conch and Dundubhi. Being in the Unmanî avasthâ, his body becomes like a piece of wood.
106. There is no doubt, such a Yogî becomes free from all states, from all cares, and remains like one dead.
107. He is not devoured by death, is not bound by his actions. The Yogî who is engaged in Samâdhi is overpowered by none.
108. The Yogî, engaged in Samâdhi, feels neither smell, taste, color, touch, sound, nor is conscious of his own self.
109. He whose mind is neither sleeping, waking, remembering, destitute of memory, disappearing nor appearing, is liberated.
110. He feels neither heat, cold, pain, pleasure, respect nor disrespect. Such a Yogî is absorbed in Samâdhi.
111. He who, though awake, appears like one sleeping, and is without inspiration and expiration, is certainly free.
112. The Yogî, engaged in Samâdhi, cannot be killed by any instrument, and is beyond the controlling power of beings. He is beyond the reach of incantations and charms.
113. As long as the Prâṇa does not enter and flow in the middle channel and the vindu does not become firm by the control of the movements of the Prâṇa; as long as the mind does not assume the form of Brahma without any effort in contemplation, so long all the talk of knowledge and wisdom is merely the nonsensical babbling of a mad man.



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On the decline of the Roman power, about five centuries after Christ, the countries of Northern Europe were left almost destitute of a national government. Numerous chiefs, more or less powerful, held local sway, as far as each could enforce his dominion, and occasionally those [...] Read more →

CIA 1950s Unevaluated UFO Intelligence



INROMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENT OR RADIO BROADCASTS COUNTRY: Non-Orbit SUBJECT: Military – Air – Scientific – Aeronautics HOW PUBLISHED: Newspapers WHERE PUBLISHED: As indicated DATE PUBLISHED: 12 Dec 1953 – 12 Jan 1954 LANGUAGE: Various SOURCE: As indicated REPORT NO. 00-W-30357 DATE OF INFORMATION: 1953-1954 DATE DIST. 27 [...] Read more →

Shooting in Wet Weather


Reprint from The Sportsman’s Cabinet and Town and Country Magazine, Vol I. Dec. 1832, Pg. 94-95

To the Editor of the Cabinet.


Possessing that anxious feeling so common among shooters on the near approach of the 12th of August, I honestly confess I was not able [...] Read more →

Carpenters’ Furniture

IT requires a far search to gather up examples of furniture really representative in this kind, and thus to gain a point of view for a prospect into the more ideal where furniture no longer is bought to look expensively useless in a boudoir, but serves everyday and commonplace need, such as [...] Read more →

Tuna Record


July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 11

The Tuna Record.

Avalon. Santa Catalina Island. Southern California, June 16.—Editor Forest and Stream: Several years ago the writer in articles on the “Game Fishes of the Pacific Slope,” in [...] Read more →

A Couple of Classic Tennessee Squirrel Recipes


3-4 Young Squirrels, dressed and cleaned 1 tsp. Morton Salt or to taste 1 tsp. McCormick Black Pepper or to taste 1 Cup Martha White All Purpose Flour 1 Cup Hog Lard – Preferably fresh from hog killing, or barbecue table

Cut up three to [...] Read more →

Valentine Poetry from the Cotswold Explorer


There is nothing more delightful than a great poetry reading to warm ones heart on a cold winter night fireside. Today is one of the coldest Valentine’s days on record, thus, nothing could be better than listening to the resonant voice of Robin Shuckbrugh, The Cotswold [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

English Fig Wine

Take the large blue figs when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine.

Then slice some other figs and let them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced [...] Read more →

A History of the Use of Arsenicals in Man

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

Mrs. Beeton’s Poultry & Game – Choosing Poultry

To Choose Poultry.

When fresh, the eyes should be clear and not sunken, the feet limp and pliable, stiff dry feet being a sure indication that the bird has not been recently killed; the flesh should be firm and thick and if the bird is plucked there should be no [...] Read more →

Chinese Duck Cooking – A Few Recipes

Chen Lin, Water fowl, in Cahill, James. Ge jiang shan se (Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368, Taiwan edition). Taipei: Shitou chubanshe fen youxian gongsi, 1994. pl. 4:13, p. 180. Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. scroll, light colors on paper, 35.7 x 47.5 cm


Zulu Yawl

Dec. 10, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 477-479


The little ship shown in the accompanying plans needs no description, as she speaks for herself, a handsome and shipshape craft that a man may own for years without any fear that she will go to pieces [...] Read more →

The Kalmar War

Wojna Kalmarska – 1611

The Kalmar War

From The Historian’s History of the World (In 25 Volumes) by Henry Smith William L.L.D. – Vol. XVI.(Scandinavia) Pg. 308-310

The northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, as already noticed, had been peopled from the remotest times by nomadic tribes called Finns or Cwenas by [...] Read more →

Clover Wine

Add 3 quarts clover blossoms* to 4 quarts of boiling water removed from heat at point of boil. Let stand for three days. At the end of the third day, drain the juice into another container leaving the blossoms. Add three quarts of fresh water and the peel of one lemon to the blossoms [...] Read more →

What’s the Matter?

A rhetorical question? Genuine concern?

In this essay we are examining another form of matter otherwise known as national literary matters, the three most important of which being the Matter of Rome, Matter of France, and the Matter of England.

Our focus shall be on the Matter of England or [...] Read more →

Method of Restoration for Ancient Bronzes and other Alloys

Cannone nel castello di Haut-Koenigsbourg, photo by Gita Colmar

Without any preliminary cleaning the bronze object to be treated is hung as cathode into the 2 per cent. caustic soda solution and a low amperage direct current is applied. The object is suspended with soft copper wires and is completely immersed into [...] Read more →

King William III on Horseback by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Reprint from The Royal Collection Trust website:

Kneller was born in Lubeck, studied with Rembrandt in Amsterdam and by 1676 was working in England as a fashionable portrait painter. He painted seven British monarchs (Charles II, James II, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I and George II), though his [...] Read more →

Christmas Pudding with Dickens

Traditional British Christmas Pudding Recipe by Pen Vogler from the Charles Dickens Museum


85 grams all purpose flour pinch of salt 170 grams Beef Suet 140 grams brown sugar tsp. mixed spice, allspice, cinnamon, cloves, &c 170 grams bread crumbs 170 grams raisins 170 grams currants 55 grams cut mixed peel Gram to [...] Read more →

The First Pineapple Grown in England

First Pineapple Grown in England

Click here to read an excellent article on the history of pineapple growing in the UK.

Should one be interested in serious mass scale production, click here for scientific resources.

Growing pineapples in the UK.

The video below demonstrates how to grow pineapples in Florida.

[...] Read more →

Of the Room and Furniture

Crewe Hall Dining Room


THE transient tenure that most of us have in our dwellings, and the absorbing nature of the struggle that most of us have to make to win the necessary provisions of life, prevent our encouraging the manufacture of well-wrought furniture.

We mean to outgrow [...] Read more →

The Perfect Salad Dressing

The following recipes are from a small booklet entitled 500 Delicious Salads that was published for the Culinary Arts Institute in 1940 by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc. 153 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.

If you have been looking for a way to lighten up your salads and be free of [...] Read more →

Texas Tarpon

Early Texas photo of Tarpon catch – Not necessarily the one mentioned below…

July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg.10

Texas Tarpon.

Tarpon, Texas.—Mr. W. B. Leach, of Palestine, Texas, caught at Aransas Pass Islet, on June 14, the largest tarpon on record here taken with rod and reel. The [...] Read more →

Fed Policy Success Equals Tax Payers Job Insecurity

The low level of work stoppages of recent years also attests to concern about job security.

Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan The Federal Reserve’s semiannual monetary policy report Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate February 26, 1997

Iappreciate the opportunity to appear before this Committee [...] Read more →

Curing Diabetes With an Old Malaria Formula

For years in the West African nation of Ghana medicine men have used a root and leaves from a plant called nibima(Cryptolepis sanguinolenta) to kill the Plasmodium parasite transmitted through a female mosquito’s bite that is the root cause of malaria. A thousand miles away in India, a similar(same) plant [...] Read more →

The Intaglio Processes for Audubon’s Birds of America

Notes on the intaglio processes of the most expensive book on birds available for sale in the world today.

The Audubon prints in “The Birds of America” were all made from copper plates utilizing four of the so called “intaglio” processes, engraving, etching, aquatint, and drypoint. Intaglio [...] Read more →

Painting Plaster Work and the History of Terra Cotta

The 1896 Victorian terracotta Bell Edison Telephone Building – 17 & 19 Newhall Street, Birmingham, England. A grade I listed building designed by Frederick Martin of the firm Martin & Chamberlain. Now offices for firms of architects. Photographed 10 May 2006 by Oosoom

[Reprint from Victoria and Albert Museum included below on [...] Read more →

Peach Brandy


2 gallons + 3 quarts boiled water 3 qts. peaches, extremely ripe 3 lemons, cut into sections 2 sm. pkgs. yeast 10 lbs. sugar 4 lbs. dark raisins

Place peaches, lemons and sugar in crock. Dissolve yeast in water (must NOT be to hot). Stir thoroughly. Stir daily for 7 days. Keep [...] Read more →

Catholic Religious Orders

Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Order of Friars Minor, as painted by El Greco.

Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are one of two types of religious institutes (‘Religious Institutes’, cf. canons 573–746), the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. They are organizations of laity [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

The Hunt Saboteur

The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace barking out loud, black mask on her face get those dogs off, get them off she did yell until a swift kick from me mare her voice it did quell and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale to the full cry of hounds drowning out her [...] Read more →

Bess of Hardwick: Four Times a Lady

Bess of Harwick

Four times the nuptial bed she warm’d, And every time so well perform’d, That when death spoil’d each husband’s billing, He left the widow every shilling. Fond was the dame, but not dejected; Five stately mansions she erected With more than royal pomp, to vary The prison of her captive When [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

Origin of the Apothecary


The origin of the apothecary in England dates much further back than one would suppose from what your correspondent, “A Barrister-at-Law,” says about it. It is true he speaks only of apothecaries as a distinct branch of the medical profession, but long before Henry VIII’s time [...] Read more →

The Billesden Coplow Run

*note – Billesdon and Billesden have both been used to name the hunt.


[From “Reminiscences of the late Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq”]

The run celebrated in the following verses took place on the 24th of February, 1800, when Mr. Meynell hunted Leicestershire, and has since been [...] Read more →

The Apparatus of the Stock Market


The components of any given market place include both physical structures set up to accommodate trading, and participants to include buyers, sellers, brokers, agents, barkers, pushers, auctioneers, agencies, and propaganda outlets, and banking or transaction exchange facilities.

Markets are generally set up by sellers as it is in their [...] Read more →

Palermo Wine

Take to every quart of water one pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day. You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it [...] Read more →

Commercial Fried Fish Cake Recipe

Dried Norwegian Salt Cod

Fried fish cakes are sold rather widely in delicatessens and at prepared food counters of department stores in the Atlantic coastal area. This product has possibilities for other sections of the country.


Home Top of [...] Read more →

Arsenic and Old Lace

What is follows is an historical article that appeared in The Hartford Courant in 1916 about the arsenic murders carried out by Mrs. Archer-Gilligan. This story is the basis for the 1944 Hollywood film “Arsenic and Old Lace” starring Cary Grant and Priscilla Lane and directed by Frank Capra. The [...] Read more →

Traditional JuJutsu Health, Strength and Combat Tricks

Jujitsu training 1920 in Japanese agricultural school.



In the writer’s opinion it becomes necessary to make at this point some suggestions relative to a very important part of the training in jiu-jitsu. [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

Preserving Iron and Steel Surfaces with Paint

Painting the Brooklyn Bridge, Photo by Eugene de Salignac , 1914


Excerpt from: The Preservation of Iron and Steel Structures by F. Cosby-Jones, The Mechanical Engineer January 30, 1914


This is the method of protection against corrosion that has the most extensive use, owing to the fact that [...] Read more →

The First Christian Man Cremated in America

Laurens’ portrait as painted during his time spent imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was kept for over a year after being captured at sea while serving as the United States minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

The first Christian white man to be cremated in America was [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Musquash

Hudson Bay: Trappers, 1892. N’Talking Musquash.’ Fur Trappers Of The Hudson’S Bay Company Talking By A Fire. Engraving After A Drawing By Frederic Remington, 1892.

Indian Modes of Hunting.


In Canada and the United States, the killing of the little animal known under the several names of [...] Read more →

Country House Christmas Pudding

Country House Christmas Pudding


1 cup Christian Bros Brandy ½ cup Myer’s Dark Rum ½ cup Jim Beam Whiskey 1 cup currants 1 cup sultana raisins 1 cup pitted prunes finely chopped 1 med. apple peeled and grated ½ cup chopped dried apricots ½ cup candied orange peel finely chopped 1 ¼ cup [...] Read more →

Tobacco as Medicine

The first published illustration of Nicotiana tabacum by Pena and De L’Obel, 1570–1571 (shrpium adversana nova: London).

Tobacco can be used for medicinal purposes, however, the ongoing American war on smoking has all but obscured this important aspect of ancient plant.

Tobacco is considered to be an indigenous plant of [...] Read more →

Mudlark Regulations in the U.K.

Mudlarks of London

Mudlarking along the Thames River foreshore is controlled by the Port of London Authority.

According to the Port of London website, two type of permits are issued for those wishing to conduct metal detecting, digging, or searching activities.

Standard – allows digging to a depth of 7.5 [...] Read more →

Target Practice

Nov. 12, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 396

The Veterans to the Front.

Ironton. O., Oct. 28.—Editor Forest and Stream: I mail you a target made here today by Messrs. E. Lawton, G. Rogers and R. S. Dupuy. Mr. Dupuy is seventy-four years old, Mr. Lawton seventy-two. Mr. Rogers [...] Read more →

JP Morgan’s Digital Currency Patent Application

J.P. Morgan Patent #8,452,703

Method and system for processing internet payments using the electronic funds transfer network.


Embodiments of the invention include a method and system for conducting financial transactions over a payment network. The method may include associating a payment address of an account [...] Read more →

A Few Wine Recipes

EIGHTEEN GALLONS is here give as a STANDARD for all the following Recipes, it being the most convenient size cask to Families. See A General Process for Making Wine

If, however, only half the quantity of Wine is to be made, it is but to divide the portions of [...] Read more →

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.


“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

Clairvoyance and Occult Powers

Vishnu as the Cosmic Man (Vishvarupa) Opaque watercolour on paper – Jaipur, Rajasthan c. 1800-50



By Swami Panchadasi

Copyright, 1916

By Advanced Thought Pub. Co. Chicago, Il


In preparing this series of lessons for students of [...] Read more →

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

Reprint from the Royal Collection Trust Website

The meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, took place between 7 to 24 June 1520 in a valley subsequently called the Val d’Or, near Guisnes to the south of Calais. The [...] Read more →

Rendering Amber Clear for Use in Lens-Making for Magnifying Glass

by John Partridge,drawing,1825

From the work of Sir Charles Lock Eastlake entitled Materials for a history of oil painting, (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846), we learn the following:

The effect of oil at certain temperatures, in penetrating “the minute pores of the amber” (as Hoffman elsewhere writes), is still more [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Setting Fox Traps

Aug. 13, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 125

Game Bag and Gun.

Indian Modes of Hunting. III.—Foxes.

The fox as a rule is a most wily animal, and numerous are the stories of his cunning toward the Indian hunter with his steel traps.

The Master of Hounds

Photo Caption: The Marquis of Zetland, KC, PC – otherwise known as Lawrence Dundas Son of: John Charles Dundas and: Margaret Matilda Talbot born: Friday 16 August 1844 died: Monday 11 March 1929 at Aske Hall Occupation: M.P. for Richmond Viceroy of Ireland Vice Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire Lord – in – Waiting [...] Read more →

Popular Mechanics Archive

Click here to access the Internet Archive of old Popular Mechanics Magazines – 1902-2016

Click here to view old Popular Mechanics Magazine Covers

Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Here’s Many a Year to You

” Here’s many a year to you ! Sportsmen who’ve ridden life straight. Here’s all good cheer to you ! Luck to you early and late.

Here’s to the best of you ! You with the blood and the nerve. Here’s to the rest of you ! What of a weak moment’s swerve ? [...] Read more →

Sea and River Fishing

An angler with a costly pole Surmounted with a silver reel, Carven in quaint poetic scroll- Jointed and tipped with finest steel— With yellow flies, Whose scarlet eyes And jasper wings are fair to see, Hies to the stream Whose bubbles beam Down murmuring eddies wild and free. And casts the line with sportsman’s [...] Read more →

Books Condemned to be Burnt








WHEN did books first come to be burnt in England by the common hangman, and what was [...] Read more →

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions:

As New is self-explanatory. It means that the book is in the state that it should have been in when it left the publisher. This is the equivalent of Mint condition in numismatics. Fine (F or FN) is As New but allowing for the normal effects of [...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

Tuna and Tarpon

July, 16, l898 Forest and Stream Pg. 48

Tuna and Tarpon.

New York, July 1.—Editor Forest and Stream: If any angler still denies the justice of my claim, as made in my article in your issue of July 2, that “the tuna is the grandest game [...] Read more →

Art Fraud

A la Russie, aux ânes et aux autres – by Chagall – 1911

Marc Chagall is one of the most forged artists on the planet. Mark Rothko fakes also abound. According to available news reports, the art market is littered with forgeries of their work. Some are even thought to be [...] Read more →

King Arthur Legends, Myths, and Maidens

King Arthur, Legends, Myths & Maidens is a massive book of Arthurian legends. This limited edition paperback was just released on Barnes and Noble at a price of $139.00. Although is may seem a bit on the high side, it may prove to be well worth its price as there are only [...] Read more →

Artist Methods

Como dome facade – Pliny the Elder – Photo by Wolfgang Sauber

Work in Progress…


Every substance may be considered as a varnish, which, when applied to the surface of a solid body, gives it a permanent lustre. Drying oil, thickened by exposure to the sun’s heat or [...] Read more →

Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois and the Dulwich Picture Gallery

Noel Desenfans and Sir Francis Bourgeois, circa 1805 by Paul Sandby, watercolour on paper

The Dulwich Picture Gallery was England’s first purpose-built art gallery and considered by some to be England’s first national gallery. Founded by the bequest of Sir Peter Francis Bourgois, dandy, the gallery was built to display his vast [...] Read more →