Seeds for Rootstocks of Fruit and Nut Trees

Citrus Fruit Culture

THE PRINCIPAL fruit and nut trees grown commercially in the United States (except figs, tung, and filberts) are grown as varieties or clonal lines propagated on rootstocks.

Almost all the rootstocks are grown from seed. The resulting seedlings then are either budded or grafted with propagating wood of the desired variety. This practice has come about chiefly because the improved varieties of these fruits and nuts do not come true from seed and are not easily propagated on their own roots from cuttings.

Seedlings used for rootstocks generally are easy to grow. Experience has taught us which scion-rootstock combinations are suitable and how to produce good nursery trees.

Growing fruit and nut trees on rootstocks rather than on their own roots has many advantages.

Some of the desirable horticultural varieties have more vigor when they are grown on vigorous rootstocks. Some varieties on their own roots are susceptible to root infecting, disease causing organisms and nematodes, root- and crown-infesting insects. Some are intolerant to salt, drought, alkali, and poorly drained soils. The cold hardiness of some varieties can be increased by topworking them onto the framework of cold-hardy varieties.

Many varieties produce fruit of better quality and are more productive on suitable rootstocks than they are on their own roots. By a choice of rootstocks, some fruit and nut crops can be grown in areas otherwise not suitable.

In instances, where rootstocks have solved problems for one crop, their use has led to calamity in another.

An example is the sour orange. Because of its adaptability to heavy soils, resistance to foot rot, relatively high resistance to cold, and production of good crops, the sour orange has become widely used throughout the world as a rootstock for sweet oranges. The tristeza virus, which destroys sweet orange trees growing on sour orange roots, got a foothold in South America. It spread and killed millions of trees and almost wiped out the industry. The tristeza virus has now become universal there, and the industry is being reestablished only by the use of tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin, sweet orange, Rangpur lime, and rough lemon.

Many factors, some of which are changing continuously, determine the suitability of rootstocks. Likewise, new information is being developed constantly, and new and better, rootstocks become available to meet the need.

A GOOD ROOTSTOCK is one on which, the desired variety of fruit or nut makes a good graft union and on which it is long lived, yields well, grows relatively fast, and fruits early. It must be reasonably compatible with the top variety.
If the rootstock variety is vigorous and the top variety is thoroughly compatible on it, the resulting tree tends to grow fast, is large, and often comes into fruit late. Such overvigorous combinations sometimes result in reduced quality or yield of fruit.

On the other hand, when the rootstock and top are not thoroughly compatible, the tree is likely to be dwarfed.
Such incompatibility is often the result of failure of suitable formation or function of the phloem at or near the bud union. The phloem is the tissue that contains the food-conducting tubes in the bark through which the elaborated food made in the “leaves flows to the roots to nourish them. Because of reduced nutrition, the roots are dwarfed, and there is a corresponding dwarfing of the tops.

The reduced function of the phloem at the bud union leads to an accumulation of elaborated food in the tops that in turn causes earlier maturation of fruiting wood and earlier fruiting.

Nurserymen have made use of such partial incompatibility directly or with interstocks to produce dwarf trees, which fruit correspondingly at an earlier age.

Other desirable features claimed for dwarfed trees are cheaper and easier control of pests; lower cost of pruning, thinning, and harvesting; and higher quality and better color of fruit.

The problem in producing dwarf trees is to find combinations that allow enough of the normal functions to go on so that the trees will have the desired size; not be subject to winter injury, malnutrition, and disease; and be productive of good fruit.

A ROOTSTOCK seed parent should produce seedlings that are uniform in size, vigor, and the qualities which make a seedling a good rootstock.

Preferably a rootstock seed parent should be self-fertile so that it can be grown in isolated blocks and thereby prevent hybridization and variability in the seedlings. The fruits and seeds should all mature at the same season to permit machine harvesting. If the seeds are in fleshy fruits (such as cherries and plums), the fruit should be a freestone to allow easier removal of the fruit flesh.

The trees that are sources of seed should be productive. The seeds should give a high percentage of germination.

THE SEEDS of fruit tree rootstocks have to be harvested, stored, and handled in different ways.

Some cannot be dried or allowed to ferment in the juice of the fruit. Some need after ripening before they will germinate. Some remain viable in a dry condition for several years.

Because citrus seed soon loses its vitality if it becomes too dry, it is usually extracted from fresh fruit by hand, washed free of pulp and juice, surface dried, and planted immediately.

If it is to be stored, the washed seed should be dipped in a 1 percent solution of 8-oxyquinoline sulfate, surface
dried, and placed in a polyethylene plastic bag and kept in cold storage at 38°-40° F. Such treated citrus seed can be stored many months with only a slight decline in viability.

SEEDS of peach, apricot, cherry, and plum should be extracted from fresh fruit and preferably washed free of fruit parts and juice as soon as possible. These stone-fruit seeds lose their ability to germinate if they are allowed to ferment in fruit juice or fruit pomace. Viability is severely reduced if left in fermenting juice even for 24 hours. On the other hand, properly dried and cured seeds of peach, plums, and apricot may be kept 4 years or more in a cool, dry storage with little loss in viability.

Cherry seeds generally are more sensitive to drying. After harvest they should be thoroughly washed, surface dried, and kept in a cool, moist storage until they are ready for planting or placed in storage for afterripening. In some sections, cherry rootstock seeds are planted directly in the nursery in the fall. Some growers prefer to hold them in a mixture of moist peat and sand in a cold storage and plant them in the spring. Cherries need approximately 110 to 120 days at 40° for best germination.

Mazzard and mahaleb cherries are the commonest rootstocks for sweet cherries. Some cherries are grown exclusively on mahaleb. Seeds of both mahaleb and mazzard do not remain viable as long as peaches and apricots. Seeds of apple, pear, and quince mainly are harvested from local varieties at processing plants, washed, surface dried, and stored in cool, moist storage. Sometimes they are planted immediately directly in the nursery row.

Almonds can be air dried. They will retain their viability for several years in common dry storage. Pecan seeds are harvested and planted immediately in the fall or they can be stratified in moist sand until they germinate when they are planted in the nursery row.

No entirely satisfactory rootstock has been found for the Regia or Persian walnuts. Juglans hindsii, the northern California black walnut, Regia seedlings, and Royal and Paradox hybrids are all used. The seed is stored over winter in a cool, moist place and planted in the spring.

MANY TREE seeds need a rest or afterripening period before they will germinate.

Generally speaking, seeds with a hard shell or pit require more rest than those with a softer shell or without a shell.
Most soft or fleshy seeds that do not stand drying usually will grow almost immediately as soon as they are put in a suitable environment for germination.

Most seeds acquire their needed rest period or chilling requirement only when placed under proper environment. Most varieties of peach need 100 to 120 days in a moist substrate, such as a mixture of moist peat and sand at 40°, to give maximum germination.

A few seeds will germinate after 60 days, and the percentage increases with time. Peach seeds can be held at 32° for several months after their rest period has been satisfied without germination, but will germinate immediately if the temperature is raised.

Moisture is as important as cold in the afterripening process. Most deciduous seeds in temperate climates will receive more rest than they need if they are planted directly in the nursery row and allowed to obtain their chilling from natural exposure. Freezing is not necessary but usually is not harmful unless it is severe.

Apricots, almonds, cherries, and plums can be afterripened in the same way as peaches.

Some plums, especially domestica species, require much more chilling than most peaches. The myrobalan plum, Prunus cerasifera, requires about the same chilling as peaches.

Mahaleb cherries require slightly more than peaches, up to 125 days, and some mazzard cherries may require even more. Apricots and almonds require only 50 to 60 days for after ripening. Pears and apples require only 6 weeks or less.

In general, the seeds cannot be dried after they have had their rest period without losing their viability. Seeds of some fruits, such as peaches and cherries, will continue to grow if removed from fruits at maturity and placed in a proper environment without drying. No chilling is needed for such seed unless they are allowed to stop growing, in which case they will require chilling before growth is resumed.

FEW DISEASES are spread in or on seeds used for rootstocks. Most important are virus diseases.

No viruses are known to be carried in citrus seeds, although most of the commercial citrus trees throughout the world are infected with virus. Some of the viruses, like psorosis, produce violent and devastating symptoms. Others are latent unless the variety is topworked on a sensitive rootstock. Citrus varieties and species that produce asexual seeds can be reconstituted free of virus by merely growing seedlings, which are propagated.

The prunus ring spot virus can pass from parent through seeds to seedling in peach, cherry, and certain plums. Very likely it is seed-transmitted in other species. It also may be spread to seedling progenies of virus-free trees that are pollinated with pollen from infected trees. The viruses of peach necrotic leaf spot, prune dwarf, and sour cherry yellows are transmitted in peach and cherry seeds.

Several bacterial diseases are spread on rootstock seeds. The crown gall organism, Agrobacterium Ulnifaciens, is widely present in many soils and is carried in water. Seeds that are allowed to come in contact with contaminated water will carry the organism with them. The crown gall organism, a wound parasite, commonly infects young seedlings whose cotyledons are torn as they emerge from the seedcoat. Incipient infections develop with the seedling and often form large galls at the crown. Prunus seeds also can become contaminated with the organism that causes bacterial canker, Pseudomonas syringae.

THE CLIMATE, soils, salinity of water, pests, diseases, and conditions under which citrus is grown are so varied that no one rootstock is satisfactory for all citrus trees.

The various kinds of citrus respond differently on the same rootstock. Some grow better on one, and others on another. The adaptability of sour orange to heavy soils, its resistance to foot rot, and production of good crops of high-quality fruit has made it a first choice in many areas for oranges and grapefruit. Where tristeza virus has become established, however, it cannot be grown.

Rough lemon produces large trees with good yields on the light, sandy, ridge sections of central Florida and in many other areas with similar soils and climates. It is tolerant to tristeza. It is about as susceptible to foot rot as sweet orange and produces fruit with low solids.

Citrus macrophvlla is the most tolerant of boron of any citrus rootstock and produces good crops of lemons in high boron soils, but it is only moderately tolerant to chlorides and is tender to cold.

The trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifofiata, is deciduous and sufficiently hardy that it will grow as far north as Boston. It is not deciduous in warm climates and is only slightly more cold hardy than sour orange. Sweet oranges and certain mandarins grow well on it and produce good crops if they are free of the exocortis and other viruses that stunt trees on it. It is salt sensitive and therefore cannot be used on salty soils.

Rangpur lime has proved to be a good rootstock, well adapted to the soils and climates of some areas, but, is severely damaged if the top variety is infected with the rangpur lime disease virus-a virus related to exocortis.

Cleopatra mandarin is a good prospect for replacing sour orange because of its tolerance to foot rot and tristeza, its reasonable adaptability to heavy soils, its salt tolerance, and its ability to produce good quality in grapefruit and sweet orange. In some sections, trees on it are slow to come into bearing and do not grovv so rapidly or bear so heavily as on some of the other root-stocks.

Some of the citranges (trifoliate Xorange hybrids), such as Troyer, have shown excellent promise in some areas, but, like its trifoliate parent, is salt sensitive. Carrizo citrange has shown resistance to the burrowing nematode in Florida. Other selections and hybrids of trifoliata have shown resistance to the citrus nematode.

Citrus is somewhat by itself with respect to rootstocks because of the large number of distinct genera on which it will grow and the striking responses a single variety will produce when grown on closely related species and varieties.
Through hybridization, new rootstocks can be tailored for individual varieties, soils, and resistance to pests.

Extensive work to develop better stocks. is underway in Florida, Texas, and California.

Most of the seed used for citrus rootstocks in the United States is obtained from trees grown specifically for seed production. Growers specify varieties-even individual strains of varieties that they know will give good uniformity, vigor, and performance.

STONE FRUITS show considerable mutual grafting affinities, but many combinations are not satisfactory for commercial use.

Peach is used widely as a commercial, rootstock for apricots, plums, almonds, and some other prunus species. Peach, however, does not do well when the combination is reversed and it is grown as the top on rootstocks other than peach.

Seedlings of the Lovell peach are the commonest rootstock used for peach. Seedlings of Muir also have been widely used but have become hard to get. The wide use of these varieties is due partly to availability of seeds. Because both varieties have been used for drying and for jam, seed is saved easily and dried at the time of processing. Lovell seedlings are preferred by nurserymen over other varieties because they are more uniform, less bushy, and easier to bud.
Peach nursery stock used to be grown almost exclusively on Tennessee or Carolina naturals-escaped semiwild peaches, which descended from seed introduced by early Spanish settlers in the Southeastern States. Because of lower cost, ample supply, and good performance, Lovell has largely supplanted naturals as a source of seed.

The increasing recognition of damage to trees on peach rootstock by nematodes, particularly the root knot nematodes, has heightened interest in nematode tolerant stocks. Bokhara, Yunan, and Shalil, introduced from China and India in the 1920’s, showed some resistance to the root knot nematodes, but seedlings have had variable amunts of infection. Orchards on some selections of Shalil have been severely damaged by crown rot in California.

Several nematode-resistant peach rootstocks have been introduced. Stribling’s Nursery at Merced, Calif., introduced a patented variety under the name 8-37. The Del Rancho Fortuna Nursery at Delano, Calif., introduced Rancho Resistant in 1956. The Department of Agriculture released FV234-1 for trial in 1959.

S-37 has proved to be more resistant than Shalil, Bokhara, or Yunan, but it segregates in resistance and growth habit.
Some seedlings are weak and weeping in habit. Rancho Resistant appears to be resistant to the acrita strain of the root knot nen1atode but not to javanica.

The heritage of FV-234-1 is unknown. It was selected by J. H. Weinberger at Fort Valley, Ga., from seedlings from a lot of seed obtained from an importer as Prunus davidiana. As it resembles a true peach, it may be a hybrid. It is resistant to the acrita strain, but about one-fourth of the seedlings develop small galls when exposed to javanica. We have no evidence, however, that javanica is able to reproduce on them.

There is a growing demand for nematode- resistant and virus-free seed stocks of peach. To supply the demand, orchards are being planted specifically for seed production. Seeds from them very likely will replace the seeds that have been available as a byproduct of processing industries.

The viability of peach seeds varies from year to year. We do not know why. Seed lots with high viability retain their viability if kept dry for several years. Some nurserymen hold over and use seed from such good germination years in order to assure good stands of seedlings.

Peaches have never been successful commercially on rootstocks other than peach. They are more compatible with apricot than with plums and almonds. Before nematode-resistant peach rootstocks were available, some peach orchards were grown on apricot rootstock. Such trees were somewhat dwarfed and were generally shorter lived than on peach.

Peaches grown on certain strains of St. Julien and Damson plums are more dwarfed and shorter lived than on apricot.

Dwarf peaches are standard varieties grown on the sandplum, Prunus besseyi.

PLUMS are less demanding than peaches as to rootstocks. Most plums appear to do well on peach as a rootstock. About 50 percent of the commercially grown plums are on peach.

The European plums seem to be less suited to peach than the Japanese Imperial prune appears to be more resistant to bacterial gummosis on peach than on myrobalan plum.

French prune tends to bear earlier and produce larger fruit on peaches than on myrobalan. Italian prune in the pacific Northwest is commonly grown on peach rootstock.

Plums will also grow on almond and apricot rootstocks. A number of French•prune orchards are on apricot roots. A few varieties of plum, such as Beauty, Gaviota, EI Dorado, and Duarte, make weaker unions on apricot than on each. Some plums have trouble on almond roots.

Myrobalan and marianna plums, P.cerasijera, are widely used as rootstocks•for plums. The most of the myrobalan is propagated from domestic or imported seed. Some orchards are grown on myrobalan 29C selected in California, a vegetatively propagated myrobalan clone that is tolerant to nematodes and armillaria root rot. Marianna 2624, a similarly vegetatively propagated clone, also developed in California, is gaining favor.

ABOUT HALF of the apricots and Almonds are grown on peach rootstock. The rest are on seedling apricot and almond, respectively. Seed of Royal or Blenheim from fruit-drying yards are the commonest sources of apricot seedlings.

Formerly the seeds of the bitter almond. commonly used as a pollenizer in almond orchards, was used as a source of seeds for almond rootstock, but the variety Texas probably is most commonly used now.

Almond is losing favor as a rootstock for almonds in heavy and poorly drained soils because they appear to be more susceptible than peach to crown rot.

SWEET AND SOUR cherries are grown chiefly on mahaleb, P. mahaleb. Mazzard, P. avium, is preferred in some areas.

The seeds of mahaleb are harvested from seedling orchards grown entirely. for seed purposes. Newer varieties, known as Russian and Turkish mahaleb, have been tested and have proved to be more vigorous and winter hardy and appear very promising.

Mazzard seeds used to be obtained; from pollinator trees in western orchards and from wild native trees in the eastern States. Improved strains of the so-called “silver bark” mazzards, imported from Germany by the “Geneva branch of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, appear promising. Because the ring spot, sour cherry yellows, and prune dwarf viruses are seedborne, scientists began work to establish virus-free orchards as sources of seed. Some seed of both rootstocks still are imported from Europe.

MOST OF the apples in the United States formerly were propagated on French crab, a cider apple grown in France. More recently, seedlings of domestic• varieties, such as Delicious,Winesap,Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and York, have become widely used.

In places subject to low winter temperatures and sudden drops in temperatures, the practice of double working to produce trees with coldhardy trunks is increasing. The use of partially incompatible trunk sandwiches interstocks between the variety top and the seedling rootstock-to produce dwarf trees has become popular, but most dwarf trees are produced by growing varieties directly on dwarfing stocks, like the East Malling and Malling Merton series. Apples are grown commercially only on apple rootstocks and appear to grow equally well on seedlings of most commercial varieties.

PEARS are grown mostly on domestic Bartlett seedlings. The early pear plantings in the United States were almost entirely on French pear seedlings. Since 1920 or so, most of the pear stock was grown on oriental pear understock from seed brought from Asia. They produced vigorous trees, and were liked in the nursery because of some resistance to fire blight and woolly root aphis and freedom from leaf troubles. The association of hard end and black end of the fruit with oriental rootstock discouraged their use, and no oriental stock is used in the commercial pear orchards of western States.

PEAR DECLINE, a new disorder that has devastated pear orchards in the western States, has been associated with oriental rootstocks and has brought about renewed interest in pear rootstocks.

The Angers quince propagated vegetatively is used as a dwarfing stock for pears, but there is wide variation in behavior of varieties grown directly on quince. Bartlett normally does not do well on quince. In areas where blight is bad, blight-susceptible pears are grovvn on trees composed of seedling roots, Old Home, or other blight-resistant variety trunks on which the desired varieties have been topworked. If planted deep, the Old Horne often forms roots above the bud union with the original seedling.

The Persian walnut, Juglans region, is grown mostly on the northern California black walnut, J. hindsii. Regia seedlings, Royal and Paradox hybrids (J. hindsii X J. nigra), and (J. hindsii X regia) have been gaining in popularity because of black line, a disorder in which the bark dies at the bud union on trees of Persian on J. hindsii regia and its hybrids appear to be more resistant to the meadow nematodes.

PECANS are grown almost entirely on domestic pecan seedling rootstocks. Seed from scab-resistant varieties with medium-size nuts, such as Curtis and Stuart, are preferred, because the seedlings in the nursery are less affected by scab and make more vigorous trees.

The small, native western nuts produced out of the heavy scab area are apt to be highly susceptible to scab and should be avoided.

TUNG is grown mostly as seedlings directly on their own roots. Seed should be collected as first-generation seed from clonally propagated varieties that have progeny performance records as to production, oil yield, vigor, and cold hardiness. Seedlings of Folsom, Lampton, and LaCrosses come true to the parent type. Lampton is probably the most widely used seed parent.

Filberts are grown from layered cuttings and thus are on their own roots. Trees are mounded and new plants are obtained from the suckers that grow from the base of the tree and root in the mound.

Figs are nearly all grown on their own roots. Cuttings are made of dormant 1- to 3-year-old wood, which is buried until it is well calloused. Then it is planted in the nursery row and later in the orchard. Some varieties have shown greater vigor and nematode resistance and are used as rootstocks for other varieties.

By L.C. COCHRAN, W.C. COOPER, EARLE C. BLODGETT, 1961 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture


Top of Pg.

Highlander Bible

JP Morgan’s Digital Currency Patent Application

J.P. Morgan Patent #8,452,703

Method and system for processing internet payments using the electronic funds transfer network.


Embodiments of the invention include a method and system for conducting financial transactions over a payment network. The method may include associating a payment address of an account [...] Read more →

Copper Kills Covid-19 and the Sun is Your Friend

The element copper effectively kills viruses and bacteria.

Therefore it would reason and I will assert and not only assert but lay claim to the patents for copper mesh stints to be inserted in the arteries of patients presenting with severe cases of Covid-19 with a slow release dosage of [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

How Long is Your Yacht?

Dominion, Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club,Winner of Seawanhaka Cup, 1898.

The Tail Wags the Dog.

The following is a characteristic sample of those broad and liberal views on yachting which are the pride of the Boston Herald. Speaking of the coming races for the Seawanhaka international challenge cup, it says:

[...] Read more →

King Arthur Legends, Myths, and Maidens

King Arthur, Legends, Myths & Maidens is a massive book of Arthurian legends. This limited edition paperback was just released on Barnes and Noble at a price of $139.00. Although is may seem a bit on the high side, it may prove to be well worth its price as there are only [...] Read more →

The Preparation of Marketable Vinegar

It is unnecessary to point out that low-grade fruit may often be used to advantage in the preparation of vinegar. This has always been true in the case of apples and may be true with other fruit, especially grapes. The use of grapes for wine making is an outlet which [...] Read more →

Country Cabbage and Pea Soup

Add the following ingredients to a four or six quart crock pot, salt & pepper to taste keeping in mind that salt pork is just that, cover with water and cook on high till it boils, then cut back to low for four or five hours. A slow cooker works well, I [...] Read more →

Something about Caius College, Cambridge

Gate of Honour, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius

Gonville & Caius College, known as Caius and pronounced keys was founded in 1348 by Edmund Gonville, the Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk. The first name was thus Goville Hall and it was dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. [...] Read more →

The Apparatus of the Stock Market


The components of any given market place include both physical structures set up to accommodate trading, and participants to include buyers, sellers, brokers, agents, barkers, pushers, auctioneers, agencies, and propaganda outlets, and banking or transaction exchange facilities.

Markets are generally set up by sellers as it is in their [...] Read more →

Guaranteed 6% Dividend for Life. Any takers?

Any prudent investor would jump at the chance to receive a guaranteed 6% dividend for life. So how does one get in on this action?

The fact of the matter is…YOU can’t…That is unless you are a shareholder of one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and the banks under [...] Read more →

Clairvoyance and Occult Powers

Vishnu as the Cosmic Man (Vishvarupa) Opaque watercolour on paper – Jaipur, Rajasthan c. 1800-50



By Swami Panchadasi

Copyright, 1916

By Advanced Thought Pub. Co. Chicago, Il


In preparing this series of lessons for students of [...] Read more →

Proper Wines to Serve with Food

Foie gras with Sauternes, Photo by Laurent Espitallier

As an Appetizer

Pale dry Sherry, with or without bitters, chilled or not. Plain or mixed Vermouth, with or without bitters. A dry cocktail.

With Oysters, Clams or Caviar

A dry flinty wine such as Chablis, Moselle, Champagne. Home Top of [...] Read more →

Books of Use to the International Art Collector

Hebborn Piranesi

Before meeting with an untimely death at the hand of an unknown assassin in Rome on January 11th, 1996, master forger Eric Hebborn put down on paper a wealth of knowledge about the art of forgery. In a book published posthumously in 1997, titled The Art Forger’s Handbook, Hebborn suggests [...] Read more →

Platform of the American Institute of Banking in 1919

Resolution adapted at the New Orleans Convention of the American Institute of Banking, October 9, 1919:

“Ours is an educational association organized for the benefit of the banking fraternity of the country and within our membership may be found on an equal basis both employees and employers; [...] Read more →

The Cremation of Sam McGee

Robert W. Service (b.1874, d.1958)


There are strange things done in the midnight sun By the men who moil for gold; The Arctic trails have their secret tales That would make your blood run cold; The Northern Lights have seen queer sights, But the queerest they ever did see Was that night [...] Read more →

A Couple of Classic Tennessee Squirrel Recipes


3-4 Young Squirrels, dressed and cleaned 1 tsp. Morton Salt or to taste 1 tsp. McCormick Black Pepper or to taste 1 Cup Martha White All Purpose Flour 1 Cup Hog Lard – Preferably fresh from hog killing, or barbecue table

Cut up three to [...] Read more →

Coffee & Cigarettes

Aw, the good old days, meet in the coffee shop with a few friends, click open the Zippo, inhale a glorious nosegay of lighter fluid, fresh roasted coffee and a Marlboro cigarette….

A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

We conducted a [...] Read more →

Audubon’s Art Method and Techniques

Audubon started to develop a special technique for drawing birds in 1806 a Mill Grove, Pennsylvania. He perfected it during the long river trip from Cincinnati to New Orleans and in New Orleans, 1821.

Home Top of [...] Read more →

Life Among the Thugee

The existence of large bodies of men having no other means of subsistence than those afforded by plunder, is, in all countries, too common to excite surprise; and, unhappily, organized bands of assassins are not peculiar to India! The associations of murderers known by the name of Thugs present, however, [...] Read more →

Shooting in Wet Weather


Reprint from The Sportsman’s Cabinet and Town and Country Magazine, Vol I. Dec. 1832, Pg. 94-95

To the Editor of the Cabinet.


Possessing that anxious feeling so common among shooters on the near approach of the 12th of August, I honestly confess I was not able [...] Read more →

Blunderbuss Mai Tai Recipe

Blackbeard’s Jolly Roger

If you’re looking for that most refreshing of summertime beverages for sipping out on the back patio or perhaps as a last drink before walking the plank, let me recommend my Blunderbuss Mai Tai. I picked up the basics to this recipe over thirty years ago when holed up [...] Read more →

Herbal Psychedelics – Rhododendron ponticum and Mad Honey Disease

Toxicity of Rhododendron From

“Potentially toxic chemicals, particularly ‘free’ phenols, and diterpenes, occur in significant quantities in the tissues of plants of Rhododendron species. Diterpenes, known as grayanotoxins, occur in the leaves, flowers and nectar of Rhododendrons. These differ from species to species. Not all species produce them, although Rhododendron ponticum [...] Read more →

Tobacco as Medicine

The first published illustration of Nicotiana tabacum by Pena and De L’Obel, 1570–1571 (shrpium adversana nova: London).

Tobacco can be used for medicinal purposes, however, the ongoing American war on smoking has all but obscured this important aspect of ancient plant.

Tobacco is considered to be an indigenous plant of [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

Texas Tarpon

Early Texas photo of Tarpon catch – Not necessarily the one mentioned below…

July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg.10

Texas Tarpon.

Tarpon, Texas.—Mr. W. B. Leach, of Palestine, Texas, caught at Aransas Pass Islet, on June 14, the largest tarpon on record here taken with rod and reel. The [...] Read more →

Fed Policy Success Equals Tax Payers Job Insecurity

The low level of work stoppages of recent years also attests to concern about job security.

Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan The Federal Reserve’s semiannual monetary policy report Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate February 26, 1997

Iappreciate the opportunity to appear before this Committee [...] Read more →

The Kalmar War

Wojna Kalmarska – 1611

The Kalmar War

From The Historian’s History of the World (In 25 Volumes) by Henry Smith William L.L.D. – Vol. XVI.(Scandinavia) Pg. 308-310

The northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, as already noticed, had been peopled from the remotest times by nomadic tribes called Finns or Cwenas by [...] Read more →

Beef Jerky



Slice 5 pounds lean beef (flank steak or similar cut) into strips 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick, 1 to 2 inches wide, and 4 to 12 inches long. Cut with grain of meat; remove the fat. Lay out in a single layer on a smooth clean surface (use [...] Read more →

Method of Restoration for Ancient Bronzes and other Alloys

Cannone nel castello di Haut-Koenigsbourg, photo by Gita Colmar

Without any preliminary cleaning the bronze object to be treated is hung as cathode into the 2 per cent. caustic soda solution and a low amperage direct current is applied. The object is suspended with soft copper wires and is completely immersed into [...] Read more →

Artist Methods

Como dome facade – Pliny the Elder – Photo by Wolfgang Sauber

Work in Progress…


Every substance may be considered as a varnish, which, when applied to the surface of a solid body, gives it a permanent lustre. Drying oil, thickened by exposure to the sun’s heat or [...] Read more →

Chinese Duck Cooking – A Few Recipes

Chen Lin, Water fowl, in Cahill, James. Ge jiang shan se (Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368, Taiwan edition). Taipei: Shitou chubanshe fen youxian gongsi, 1994. pl. 4:13, p. 180. Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. scroll, light colors on paper, 35.7 x 47.5 cm


Books Condemned to be Burnt








WHEN did books first come to be burnt in England by the common hangman, and what was [...] Read more →

King William III on Horseback by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Reprint from The Royal Collection Trust website:

Kneller was born in Lubeck, studied with Rembrandt in Amsterdam and by 1676 was working in England as a fashionable portrait painter. He painted seven British monarchs (Charles II, James II, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I and George II), though his [...] Read more →

Bess of Hardwick: Four Times a Lady

Bess of Harwick

Four times the nuptial bed she warm’d, And every time so well perform’d, That when death spoil’d each husband’s billing, He left the widow every shilling. Fond was the dame, but not dejected; Five stately mansions she erected With more than royal pomp, to vary The prison of her captive When [...] Read more →

Proper Book Handling and Cleaning

Book Conservators, Mitchell Building, State Library of New South Wales, 29.10.1943, Pix Magazine

The following is taken verbatim from a document that appeared several years ago in the Maine State Archives. It seems to have been removed from their website. I happened to have made a physical copy of it at the [...] Read more →

Zulu Yawl

Dec. 10, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 477-479


The little ship shown in the accompanying plans needs no description, as she speaks for herself, a handsome and shipshape craft that a man may own for years without any fear that she will go to pieces [...] Read more →

The Real Time Piece Gentleman and the Digital Watch Vault

Paul Thorpe, Brighton, U.K.

The YouTube watch collecting world is rather tight-knit and small, but growing, as watches became a highly coveted commodity during the recent world-wide pandemic and fueled an explosion of online watch channels.

There is one name many know, The Time Piece Gentleman. This name for me [...] Read more →

A History of the Use of Arsenicals in Man

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

Reprint from the Royal Collection Trust Website

The meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, took place between 7 to 24 June 1520 in a valley subsequently called the Val d’Or, near Guisnes to the south of Calais. The [...] Read more →

Chantry Chapels

William Wyggeston’s chantry house, built around 1511, in Leicester: The building housed two priests, who served at a chantry chapel in the nearby St Mary de Castro church. It was sold as a private dwelling after the dissolution of the chantries.

A Privately Built Chapel

Chantry, chapel, generally within [...] Read more →

Banana Propagation

Banana Propagation

Reprinted from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (

The traditional means of obtaining banana planting material (“seed”) is to acquire suckers from one’s own banana garden, from a neighbor, or from a more distant source. This method served to spread common varieties around the world and to multiply them [...] Read more →

Valentine Poetry from the Cotswold Explorer


There is nothing more delightful than a great poetry reading to warm ones heart on a cold winter night fireside. Today is one of the coldest Valentine’s days on record, thus, nothing could be better than listening to the resonant voice of Robin Shuckbrugh, The Cotswold [...] Read more →

Peach Brandy


2 gallons + 3 quarts boiled water 3 qts. peaches, extremely ripe 3 lemons, cut into sections 2 sm. pkgs. yeast 10 lbs. sugar 4 lbs. dark raisins

Place peaches, lemons and sugar in crock. Dissolve yeast in water (must NOT be to hot). Stir thoroughly. Stir daily for 7 days. Keep [...] Read more →

Carpet Cleaner Formulae

The Ardabil Carpet – Made in the town of Ardabil in north-west Iran, the burial place of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334. The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, ancestor of Shah Ismail, founder of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1722). While the exact origins of the carpet are unclear, it’s believed to have [...] Read more →

Salmon Caviar

Salmon and Sturgeon Caviar – Photo by Thor

Salmon caviar was originated about 1910 by a fisherman in the Maritime Provinces of Siberia, and the preparation is a modification of the sturgeon caviar method (Cobb 1919). Salomon caviar has found a good market in the U.S.S.R. and other European countries where it [...] Read more →

Mocking Bird Food

Mocking Bird Food.

Hemp seed……….2 pounds Rape seed………. .1 pound Crackers………….1 pound Rice…………….1/4 pound Corn meal………1/4 pound Lard oil…………1/4 pound


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Mrs. Beeton’s Poultry & Game – Choosing Poultry

To Choose Poultry.

When fresh, the eyes should be clear and not sunken, the feet limp and pliable, stiff dry feet being a sure indication that the bird has not been recently killed; the flesh should be firm and thick and if the bird is plucked there should be no [...] Read more →

A Survey of Palestine – 1945-1946

This massive volume gives one a real visual sense of what it was like running a highly efficient colonial operation in the early 20rh Century. It will also go a long way to help anyone wishing to understand modern political intrigue in the Middle-East.

Click here to read A Survey of Palestine [...] Read more →

Tuna Record


July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 11

The Tuna Record.

Avalon. Santa Catalina Island. Southern California, June 16.—Editor Forest and Stream: Several years ago the writer in articles on the “Game Fishes of the Pacific Slope,” in [...] Read more →

The Human Seasons

John Keats

Four Seasons fill the measure of the year; There are four seasons in the mind of man: He has his lusty spring, when fancy clear Takes in all beauty with an easy span; He has his Summer, when luxuriously Spring’s honied cud of youthful thoughts he loves To ruminate, and by such [...] Read more →

Preserving Iron and Steel Surfaces with Paint

Painting the Brooklyn Bridge, Photo by Eugene de Salignac , 1914


Excerpt from: The Preservation of Iron and Steel Structures by F. Cosby-Jones, The Mechanical Engineer January 30, 1914


This is the method of protection against corrosion that has the most extensive use, owing to the fact that [...] Read more →

The Hunt Saboteur

The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace barking out loud, black mask on her face get those dogs off, get them off she did yell until a swift kick from me mare her voice it did quell and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale to the full cry of hounds drowning out her [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

A Conversation between H.F. Leonard and K. Higashi

H.F. Leonard was an instructor in wrestling at the New York Athletic Club. Katsukum Higashi was an instructor in Jujitsu.

“I say with emphasis and without qualification that I have been unable to find anything in jujitsu which is not known to Western wrestling. So far as I can see, [...] Read more →

A Cure for Distemper in Dogs


The following cure was found written on a front flyleaf in an 1811 3rd Ed. copy of The Sportsman’s Guide or Sportsman’s Companion: Containing Every Possible Instruction for the Juvenille Shooter, Together with Information Necessary for the Experienced Sportsman by B. Thomas.



Vaccinate your dogs when young [...] Read more →

Cleaner for Gilt Picture Frames

Cleaner for Gilt Frames.

Calcium hypochlorite…………..7 oz. Sodium bicarbonate……………7 oz. Sodium chloride………………. 2 oz. Distilled water…………………12 oz.


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

Fresh Water Angling – The Two Crappies


July 2, 1898 Forest and Stream,

Fresh-Water Angling. No. IX.—The Two Crappies. BY FRED MATHER.

Fishing In Tree Tops.

Here a short rod, say 8ft., is long enough, and the line should not be much longer than the rod. A reel is not [...] Read more →

Sea and River Fishing

An angler with a costly pole Surmounted with a silver reel, Carven in quaint poetic scroll- Jointed and tipped with finest steel— With yellow flies, Whose scarlet eyes And jasper wings are fair to see, Hies to the stream Whose bubbles beam Down murmuring eddies wild and free. And casts the line with sportsman’s [...] Read more →

How to Make Money – Insurance

Life insurance certificate issued by the Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company to Samuel Holt, Liverpool, England, 1851. On display at the British Museum in London. Donated by the ifs School of Finance. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor [...] Read more →

Why Beauty Matters

Roger Scruton by Peter Helm

This is one of those videos that the so-called intellectual left would rather not be seen by the general public as it makes a laughing stock of the idiots running the artworld, a multi-billion dollar business.

or Click here to watch

[...] Read more →

Indian Mode of Hunting – Beaver

Jul. 30, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 87

Indian Mode of Hunting.


Wa-sa-Kejic came over to the post early one October, and said his boy had cut his foot, and that he had no one to steer his canoe on a proposed beaver hunt. Now [...] Read more →

English Fig Wine

Take the large blue figs when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine.

Then slice some other figs and let them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced [...] Read more →

Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport. Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally [...] Read more →

Cocillana Syrup Compound

Guarea guidonia


5 Per Cent Alcohol 8-24 Grain – Heroin Hydrochloride 120 Minims – Tincture Euphorbia Pilulifera 120 Minims – Syrup Wild Lettuce 40 Minims – Tincture Cocillana 24 Minims – Syrup Squill Compound 8 Gram – Ca(s)ecarin (P, D, & Co.) 8-100 Grain Menthol

Dose – One-half to one fluidrams (2 to [...] Read more →

Modern Slow Cookers, A Critical Design Flaw

Modern slow cookers come in all sizes and colors with various bells and whistles, including timers and shut off mechanisms. They also come with a serious design flaw, that being the lack of a proper domed lid.

The first photo below depict a popular model Crock-Pot® sold far and wide [...] Read more →

What’s the Matter?

A rhetorical question? Genuine concern?

In this essay we are examining another form of matter otherwise known as national literary matters, the three most important of which being the Matter of Rome, Matter of France, and the Matter of England.

Our focus shall be on the Matter of England or [...] Read more →

Palermo Wine

Take to every quart of water one pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day. You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it [...] Read more →

Protecting Rare Books: How to Build a Silverfish Trap

Silverfish damage to book – photo by Micha L. Rieser

The beauty of hunting silverfish is that they are not the most clever of creatures in the insect kingdom.

Simply take a small clean glass jar and wrap it in masking tape. The masking tape gives the silverfish something to [...] Read more →

Fortune, Independence, and Competence

THE answer to the question, What is fortune has never been, and probably never will be, satisfactorily made. What may be a fortune for one bears but small proportion to the colossal possessions of another. The scores or hundreds of thousands admired and envied as a fortune in most of our communities [...] Read more →

Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

Mortlake Tapestries at Chatsworth House

Click here to learn more about the Mortlake Tapestries of Chatsworth

The Mortlake Tapestries were founded by Sir Francis Crane.

From the Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 13

Crane, Francis by William Prideaux Courtney

CRANE, Sir FRANCIS (d. [...] Read more →

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions

AB Bookman’s 1948 Guide to Describing Conditions:

As New is self-explanatory. It means that the book is in the state that it should have been in when it left the publisher. This is the equivalent of Mint condition in numismatics. Fine (F or FN) is As New but allowing for the normal effects of [...] Read more →

Furniture Polishing Cream

Furniture Polishing Cream.

Animal oil soap…………………….1 onuce Solution of potassium hydroxide…. .5 ounces Beeswax……………………………1 pound Oil of turpentine…………………..3 pints Water, enough to make……………..5 pints

Dissolve the soap in the lye with the aid of heat; add this solution all at once to the warm solution of the wax in the oil. Beat [...] Read more →

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.


“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

The Age of Chivalry


On the decline of the Roman power, about five centuries after Christ, the countries of Northern Europe were left almost destitute of a national government. Numerous chiefs, more or less powerful, held local sway, as far as each could enforce his dominion, and occasionally those [...] Read more →

What is the Meaning of the Term Thorough-bred Fox-hound

Reprint from the Sportsman Cabinet and Town & Country Magazine, Vol.1, Number 1, November 1832.

MR. Editor,

Will you allow me to inquire, through the medium of your pages, the correct meaning of the term thorough-bred fox-hound? I am very well aware, that the expression is in common [...] Read more →

Carpenters’ Furniture

IT requires a far search to gather up examples of furniture really representative in this kind, and thus to gain a point of view for a prospect into the more ideal where furniture no longer is bought to look expensively useless in a boudoir, but serves everyday and commonplace need, such as [...] Read more →

Watch Fraud on eBay


EBay has had a problem with fraudulent sellers since its inception back in 1995. Some aspects of the platform have improved with algorithms and automation, but others such as customer service and fraud have gotten worse. Small sellers have definitely been hurt by eBay’s [...] Read more →

On Bernini’s Bust of a Stewart King

As reported in the The Colac Herald on Friday July 17, 1903 Pg. 8 under Art Appreciation as a reprint from the Westminster Gazette


The appreciation of art as well as of history which is entertained by the average member of the [...] Read more →

The Hoochie Coochie Hex

From Dr. Marvel’s 1929 book entitled Hoodoo for the Common Man, we find his infamous Hoochie Coochie Hex.

What follows is a verbatim transcription of the text:

The Hoochie Coochie Hex should not be used in conjunction with any other Hexes. This can lead to [...] Read more →

King James Bible – Knights Templar Edition

Full Cover, rear, spine, and front

Published by Piranesi Press in collaboration with Country House Essays, this beautiful paperback version of the King James Bible is now available for $79.95 at Barnes and

This is a limited Edition of 500 copies Worldwide. Click here to view other classic books [...] Read more →

The Shirk – An Old but Familiar Phenomena


THE shirk is a well-known specimen of the genus homo. His habitat is offices, stores, business establishments of all kinds. His habits are familiar to us, but a few words on the subject will not be amiss. The shirk usually displays activity when the boss is around, [...] Read more →

Looking for a Gift for the Book Collector in the Family?

Buying a book for a serious collector with refined tastes can be a daunting task.

However, there is one company that publishes some of the finest reproduction books in the world, books that most collectors wouldn’t mind having in their collection no matter their general preference or specialty.

The First Christian Man Cremated in America

Laurens’ portrait as painted during his time spent imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was kept for over a year after being captured at sea while serving as the United States minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

The first Christian white man to be cremated in America was [...] Read more →

The Standard Navy Cutter and a Whale Boat Design

Dec. 24, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 513-514

The Standard Navy Boats.

Above we find,

The accompanying illustrations show further details of the standard navy boats, the lines of which appeared last week. In all of these boats, as stated previously, the quality of speed has been given [...] Read more →

How to Distinguish Fishes


Sept. 3, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 188-189

How to Distinguish Fishes.

BY FRED MATHER. The average angler knows by sight all the fish which he captures, but ask him to describe one and he is puzzled, and will get off on the color of the fish, which is [...] Read more →

Public Attitudes Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an overwhelming majority [...] Read more →

A Creative Approach to Saving Ye Olde Cassette Tapes

Quite possibly, the most agonizing decision being made by Baby Boomers across the nation these days is what to do with all that vintage Hi-fi equipment and boxes full of classic rock and roll cassettes and 8-Tracks.

I faced this dilemma head-on this past summer as I definitely wanted in [...] Read more →

The Crime of the Congo by Arthur Conan Doyle


Man looks at severed hand and foot….for refusing to climb a tree to cut rubber for King Leopold

Click here to read The Crime of the Congo by Arthur Conan Doyle

Victim of King Leopold of Belgium

Click on the link below for faster download.

The [...] Read more →

Tuna and Tarpon

July, 16, l898 Forest and Stream Pg. 48

Tuna and Tarpon.

New York, July 1.—Editor Forest and Stream: If any angler still denies the justice of my claim, as made in my article in your issue of July 2, that “the tuna is the grandest game [...] Read more →

Naval Stores – Distilling Turpentine

Chipping a Turpentine Tree

DISTILLING TURPENTINE One of the Most Important Industries of the State of Georgia Injuring the Magnificent Trees Spirits, Resin, Tar, Pitch, and Crude Turpentine all from the Long Leaved Pine – “Naval Stores” So Called.

Dublin, Ga., May 8. – One of the most important industries [...] Read more →