Catholic Religious Orders

Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Order of Friars Minor, as painted by El Greco.

Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are one of two types of religious institutes (‘Religious Institutes’, cf. canons 573–746), the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. They are organizations of laity and/or clergy who take solemn vows (in contrast to the simple vows taken by the members of religious congregations) and who live a common life following a religious rule or constitution under the leadership of a religious superior. According to the Annuario Pontificio, there are four branches of religious orders:

* Monastic orders: orders founded by monks or nuns who live and work in a monastery and recite the divine office.
* Mendicant orders: orders founded by friars or nuns who live from alms, recite the divine office, and have active participation in apostolic endeavors.
* Canons Regulars: orders founded by canons and canonesses regular who recite the divine office and generally are in charge of a parish.
* Clerks Regulars: orders founded by priests who are also religious men with vows and have a very active apostolic live.

Their intention is to imitate Jesus more closely, mainly, but not exclusively, by observing evangelical chastity, poverty, and obedience, which are the three evangelical counsels of perfection (cf. canons 599–601). They bind themselves to this form of living by taking public vows in accordance with the norms of church law. They may additionally profess to obey certain guidelines for living, since each order has its peculiar charism. Religious vows are to be distinguished from Holy Orders, the sacrament which bishops, priests, and deacons receive. Hence, members of religious orders are not part of the hierarchy, unless they are also ordained priests or deacons (sometimes referred to as “priest-monks” or “hieromonks” – a term more commonly found among the Orthodox than among Roman Catholics).

Religious orders only differ from religious congregations in the nature of their vows (solemn vs. simple), since today much of their way of live and apostolates don’t differ much. Even though the names are used interchangeably, technically, they are not the same.

Religious rules

Religious orders generally follow one of the four great religious rules: Rule of St Basil, Rule of St. Benedict, Rule of St. Augustine, and the Rule of St. Francis.

For example, a large number of the religious orders in the Catholic Church ( Benedictines, Trappists, Cistercians, etc.) observe the Rule of St Benedict, a collection of precepts for what is called contemplative religious life; others follow the Rule of St Augustine that stress self-denial, moderation, and care for those in need, whereas the Rule of St Basil, one of the earliest rules for Christian religious living, tends to be followed by monastic communities of the Orthodox Church. In addition, the individual Orders have their own regulations for the practical living out of their chosen Rule so as to be able to serve their own Order’s charism more fully.

Authority structure

A Religious Order is characterized by an authority structure where a superior general has jurisdiction over the order’s dependent communities. An exception is the Order of St Benedict which is not a religious order in this technical sense, because it has a system of “independent houses”, meaning that each abbey is autonomous. However, the Constitutions governing the order’s global “independent houses” were approved by the pope. Likewise, according to rank and authority, the abbot primate’s “position with regard to the other abbots [throughout the world] is to be understood rather from the analogy of a primate in a hierarchy than from that of the general of an order like the Dominicans and Jesuits.”


Roots in Egypt and Syriac- and Greek-speaking East

From the earliest times there were probably individual hermits who lived a life in isolation in imitation of Jesus’ 40 days in the desert. They have left no confirmed archaeological traces and only hints in the written record. Communities of virgins who had consecrated themselves to Christ are found at least as far back as the 2nd century. There were also individual ascetics, known as the “devout”, who usually lived not in the deserts but on the edge of inhabited places, still remaining in the world but practicing asceticism and striving for union with God, although extreme ascetism such as encratism was regarded as suspect by the Church.

Paul of Thebes (fl. 3rd cent.), commemorated in the writings of St Jerome, is regarded as the first Christian hermit in Egypt, his withdrawal into the desert apparently having been prompted by the persecution of the Christians at the time. Saint Anthony was the first to leave the world specifically to live in the desert as a monk; St Athanasius speaks of him as an anchorite. In upper Egypt, sometime around 323 AD, Saint Pachomius decided to organize his disciples into a form of community in which they lived in individual huts or rooms (cellula in Latin), but worked, ate, and worshipped in shared space. Guidelines for daily life were drawn up (a monastic ‘rule’); and several monasteries were founded, nine for men and two for women. This method of monastic organization is called cenobitic or “community-based”. Towards the end of his life St Pachomius was therefore not only the abbot of a monastery but also the head of an entire order of monasteries.

The Greeks (e.g. St Basil the Great of Cappadocian Caesarea) and the Syriac-speaking east have their own monastic traditions (e.g. St Ephrem of Nisibis and Edessa).


The earliest forms of monasticism in Western Europe involved figures such as Martin of Tours, who after serving in the Roman legions converted to Christianity and established a hermitage near Milan. He then moved on to Poitiers where he gathered a community around his hermitage. In 372 he was called to become Bishop of Tours, where he established a monastery at Marmoutiers on the opposite bank of the Loire River. His monastery was laid out as a colony of hermits rather than as a single integrated community.

John Cassian began his monastic career at a monastery in Palestine and Egypt around 385 to study monastic practice there. In Egypt he had been attracted to the isolated life of hermits, which he considered the highest form of monasticism, yet the monasteries he founded were all organized monastic communities. About 410 he established two monasteries near Marseilles, one for men, one for women. In time these attracted a total of 5,000 monks and nuns. Most significant for the future development of monasticism were Cassian’s Institutes, which provided a guide for monastic life and his Conferences, a collection of spiritual reflections.

Honoratus of Marseilles was a wealthy Gallo-Roman aristocrat, who after a pilgrimage to Egypt, founded the Monastery of Lerins, on an island lying off the modern city of Cannes. Lerins became, in time, a center of monastic culture and learning, and many later monks and bishops would pass through Lerins in the early stages of their career.


The anonymous Rule of the Master (Regula magistri), was written somewhere south of Rome around 500. The rule adds administrative elements not found in earlier rules, defining the activities of the monastery, its officers, and their responsibilities in great detail.

Benedict of Nursia was the most influential early Western monk. He was educated in Rome but soon sought the life of a hermit in a cave at Subiaco, outside the city. He then attracted followers with whom he founded the monastery of Monte Cassino around 520, between Rome and Naples. His Rule is shorter than the Master’s, and somewhat less legalistic. By the 9th century, largely under the inspiration of the Emperor Charlemagne, Benedict’s Rule became the basic guide for Western monasticism.


The earliest Monastic settlements in Ireland emerged at the end of the 5th century. The first identifiable founder of a monastery was Saint Brigit, a saint who ranked with Saint Patrick as a major figure of the Irish church. The monastery at Kildare was a double monastery, with both men and women ruled by the Abbess, a pattern found in many other monastic foundations.

Commonly Irish monasteries were established by grants of land to an abbot or abbess, who came from a local noble family. The monastery became the spiritual focus of the tribe or kin group. Irish monastic rules specify a stern life of prayer and discipline in which prayer, poverty, and obedience are the central themes. However Irish monks read Latin texts, both spiritual and secular, with an enthusiasm that their contemporaries on the continent lacked. By the end of the 7th century, Irish monastic schools were attracting students from England and from Europe.

Irish monasticism spread widely, first to Scotland and Northern England, then to Gaul and Italy. Columba and his followers established monasteries at Bangor, on the northeastern coast of Ireland, at Iona in Scotland, and at Lindisfarne, in Northumbria. Columbanus, an abbot from a Leinster noble family, traveled to Gaul in the late 6th century with twelve companions. Columbanus and his followers spread the Irish model of monastic institutions established by noble families to the continent. A whole series of new rural monastic foundations on great rural estates under Irish influence sprang up, starting with Columbanus’s foundations of Fontaines and Luxeuil, sponsored by the Frankish King Childebert II. After Childebert’s death Columbanus traveled east to Metz, where Theudebert II allowed him to establish a new monastery among the semi-pagan Alemanni in what is now Switzerland. One of Columbanus’s followers founded the monastery of St. Gall on the shores of Lake Constance, while Columbanus continued onward across the Alps to the kingdom of the Lombards in Italy. There King Agilulf and his wife Theodolinda granted Columbanus land in the mountains between Genoa and Milan, where he established the monastery of Bobbio.

List of Catholic religious orders

As per the Annuario Pontificio, these are the existing approved and recognized Catholic religious orders:

Mendicant orders
Official Name Acronym Nickname
Ordo Augustiniensium Discalceatorum O.A.D. Discalced Augustinians
Ordo Minimorum O.M. Minims
Ordo Augustinianorum Recollectorum O.A.R. Augustinians Recollects
Ordo Fratrum Discalceatorum B. Mariae V. de Monte Carmelo O.C.D. Discalced Carmelites
Ordo Servorum Mariae O.S.M. Servites
Ordo Fratrum Minorum O.F.M. Franciscans
Ordo Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum O.F.M. Cap. Capuchin Franciscans
Ordo Fratrum Minorum Conventualium O.F.M. Conv. Conventual Franciscans
Ordo Fratrum Praedicatorum O.P. Dominicans
Ordo B. Mariae Virginis de Mercede O. de M. Mercedarians
Ordo Fratrum Beatissimae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo O. Carm. Carmelites
Ordo Fratrum Sancti Augustini O.S.A. Augustinians
Ordo Ssmae Trinitatis O.SS.T. Trinitarians
Tertius Ordo Regularis S. Francisci T.O.R. Brothers of Penance
Monastic Orders
Official Name Acronym Nickname
Ordo Cartusiensis Cart. Carthusians
Ordo Sancti Hieronymi O.S.H. Hieronymites
Ordo Cisterciensis O. Cist. Cistercians
Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae O.C.S.O. Trappist
Ordo Libanensis Maronitarum O.L.M. Baladites
Ordo S. Benedicti O.S.B. Benedictines
Ordo Basilianus S. Iosaphat O.S.B.M. Basilians
Ordo Basilianus S. Iohannis Baptistae, Soaritarum Melkitarum B.C.
Ordo Fratrum S. Pauli Primi Eremitae O.S.P.P.E. Pauline Fathers
Ordo Basilianus Ssmi Salvatoris Melkitarum B.S.
Ordo Maronita Beatae Mariae Virginis O.M.M.
Cleric Regulars
Official Name Acronym Nickname
Congregatio Clericorum Regularium S. Pauli B. Barnabites
Ordo Clericorum Regularium vulgo Theatinorum C.R. Theatines
Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somascha C.R.S.
Ordo Clericorum Regularium Matris Dei O. M. D.
Ordo Clericorum Regularium Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum Sch. P. Piarists
Ordo Clericorum Regularium Ministrantium Infirmis M.I. Camilians
Societas Jesu S.J. Jesuits
Canon Regulars
Official Name Acronym Nickname
Congregatio Ssmi Salvatoris Lateranensis C.R.L.
Sacer et Apostolicus Ordo Canonicorum Regularium S. Augustini C.R.S.A. Canon Regulars
Ordo Fratrum Domus Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum in Jerusalem O.T.
Candidus et Canonicus Ordo Praemonstratensis O. Praem. Norbertines or Premonstratensians
Ordo Canonicorum Regularium Sancae Crucis O.R.C.
Congregatio Helvetica o Sancto Mauritio Agaunensis C.R.A
Canonici Regulares Ordinis S. Crucis O.S.C. Holy Cross

Congregation (Catholic)

In reference to Catholic religious orders, the term congregation has two usages.

Primarily, a congregation is one of the Catholic religious institutes in which simple vows, not solemn vows, are taken. In the canon law of the Catholic Church, public vows are divided into simple vows and solemn vows. Professed members of monastic and certain other orders (e.g., the Jesuits) take solemn vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience (the vows of religion) in which all claims to inheritances are renounced. Countries which recognized canon law as having legal force for the society would automatically enforce this religious practice. Members of religious congregations take simple versions of them, which allow for inheritance.

This innovation was introduced after the experience in the Catholic Church of the upheavals brought about the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic invasions of other Catholic countries. Thousands of monks and nuns were left to live in poverty, having forsaken any means of income to which they might have been entitled through inheritances. This was coupled with the rise of the new groups of religious men and women, whose way of life was oriented not to the ancient monastic way of life, but rather more to social service in response to the widespread poverty of the age, and to evangelization, both in Europe and overseas.

The other major use of this term is to denote the various grouping of Benedictine monasteries into independent associations, presided over by the abbot of a particular community. Thus one speaks of, e.g., the Cassinese or Camaldolese congregations. These different congregations vary in regard to the authority of the presiding abbot. Thus, in some congregations, the role of the presiding abbot is directly exercised upon the individual member of the congregation, while in others, it is more of a role of guidance to the monastic community.

List of congregations

The 2000 Annuario Pontificio lists about 1 million persons in religious institutes worldwide. This included 139,397 religious priests (and excluded 265,781 diocesan priests), 55,057 religious brothers, and 801,185 religious sisters.

The following list refers to some of the major religious congregations of the Catholic Church; it should be understood that communities using the same name may exist in also in the Anglican tradition, as well as there can be more than one Catholic congregation with the same name. Each is accompanied by its official name in English as well as the acronym (or “post-nominal initials”) commonly used to identify its members. In many cases name variations and/or alternative names are also in use. In parentheses is the year it was established.

Some organizations in the following list are not Religious Institutes because they are Associations of the Faithful and have not yet received a decree of erection to become an Institute of Consecrated Life. For this reason, this list does not verify the canonical status of an organization:

Name Initials Founder Date(s) of founding
Adorers of the Blood of Christ A.S.C. Maria De Mattias 1834
Adrian Dominican Sisters 1923 (1233)
Albertines 1888
Alexians C.F.A. 1469
Angelic Sisters of St. Paul A.S.S.P. Anthony Maria Zaccaria 1535
Apostles of the Sacred Heart of Jesus A.S.C.J. 1894
Assisi Sisters of Mary Immaculate A.S.M.I. 1949
Assumptionists A.A. 1845
Little Sisters of the Assumption L.S.A. Etienne Pernet 1865
Religious of the Assumption 1839
Society of the Atonement (Atonement Friars, Graymoor Friars/Sisters) S.A. 1909
Augustinian Sisters, Servants of Jesus and Mary A.S.J.M. 1827
Society of Saint Augustine (Augustinians of Kansas) S.S.A. 1981
Benedictine Oblates of St Scholastica O.S.B. 1984
Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration 1874
Bernardine Cistercians of Esquermes Hippolyte Lecouvreur 1827
Bernardines (also call Cistercians) 1098
Bon Secours Sisters C.B.S. 1824
Brigidine Sisters 1807
Brotherhood of Hope B.H. 1980
Brothers of Charity F.C. 1807
Brothers of Christian Instruction of St Gabriel F.S.G. 1711
Brothers of Mercy of Our Lady of Perpetual Help F.M.M. 1839
Brothers of the Christian Schools (Lasallian Brothers or Christian Brothers) F.S.C. John Baptist de La Salle 1680
Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis C.F.P. Johannes Hoever 1861
Brothers of the Sacred Heart S.C. 1821
Brothers of Christian Instruction (De la Mennais Brothers, FIC Brothers) F.I.C. Gabriel Deshayes
Jean-Marie de Lamennais
Camaldolese Hermits of the Congregation of Monte Corona Er.Cam. Paul Giustiniani 1525
Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius S.J.C. 2006
Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception 1871
Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem C.R.N.J. 2002
Canossians (Canossian Daughters and Sons of Charity) F.D.D.C. 1808
Carmelites of Saint Elijah
Carmelitae Sancti Eliae
C.S.E. 1986
Carmelites of Mary Immaculate C.M.I. 1831
Carmelite Daughters of the Divine Heart of Jesus D.C.J. 1891
Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm 1929
Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles 1904
Claretians (Claretian Missionaries) C.M.F. 1849
Claretian Sisters 1876
Comboni Missionaries 1867
Community of Betania
Companions of the Cross C.C. 1988
Company of Mary Our Lady O.D.N. 1607
Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Scheutists)
Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae
C.I.C.M. 1862
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament S.S.S. 1659
Congregation of Christian Brothers (Christian Brothers of Ireland) C.F.C. 1802
Congregation of the Disciples of the Lord
Congregatio Discipulorum Domini
C.D.D. 1931
Congregation of Divine Providence C.D.P. 1827
Congregation of Holy Cross C.S.C. 1837
Congregation of Maronite Lebanese Missionaries M.L. 1865
Congregation of the Mission C.M. 1624
Congregation of the Mother Co-Redemptrix C.M.C. 1909
Congregation of Notre Dame C.N.D. 1653
Congregation of Our Lady of the Missions 1861
Congregation of the Sisters of Nazareth C.S.N. 1948
Congregation of the Sisters of the Resurrection 1891
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary SS.CC. 1800
Congregation of St. Basil C.S.B. 1822
Congregation of St. Joseph C.S.J. 1873
Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux C.S.T. 1931 / 1945
Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy (Divine Mercy Sisters) O.L.M. 1862
Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul D.C. 1633
Daughters of Divine Charity F.D.C. 1868
Daughters of Divine Love 1969
Daughters of the Holy Spirit D.H.S. 1706
Daughters of Mary of the Immaculate Conception 1904
Daughters of Our Lady of Compassion D.O.L.C. 1892
Daughters of St. Francis of Assisi 1894
Daughters of St. Paul F.S.P. 1915
Daughters of Wisdom 1707
Dehonians (Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus) S.C.J. 1878
Divine Word Missionaries S.V.D. 1875
Dominican Missionaries for the Deaf Apostolate O.P. Miss. 2004
Dominican Nuns of the Perpetual Rosary 1880
Dominican Sisters of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 1856
Dominican Sisters of Hawthorne 1900
Dominican Sisters of the Immaculate Conception O.P. 1861
Dominican Sisters of St. Cecilia O.P. 1860
Christian Doctrine Fathers (Doctrinaries)
Congregatio Patrum Doctrinae Christianae
D.C. 1592
Eudists (Congregation of Jesus and Mary) C.I.M. 1643
Fathers of Mercy
Congregatio Presbyterorum a Misericordia
C.P.M. 1808
Felician Sisters (Congregation of the Sisters of St. Felix of Cantalice) C.S.S.F. 1855
Franciscan Apostolic Sisters F.A.S. 1954
Franciscan Brothers of Brooklyn O.S.F. 1858
Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist F.B.E. 2004
Franciscan Brothers of Peace F.B.P. 1982
Franciscan Clarist Congregation
Franciscan Friars of the Renewal C.F.R. 1987
Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate F.I. Fr. Stefano Maria Manelli
Fr. Gabriel Maria Pellettieri
Franciscan Handmaids of Mary 1915
Franciscan Hospitaller Sisters of the Immaculate Conception F.H.I.C. 1876
Franciscan Minims of the Perpetual Help of Mary F.M. 1942
Franciscan Missionaries of the Divine Motherhood F.M.D.M. 1887
Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word M.F.V.A. 1987
Franciscan Missionaries of Mary F.M.M. 1877
Franciscan Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary 1859
Franciscan Missionary Sisters of the Infant Jesus 1879
Franciscan Servants of Jesus 1997
Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity O.S.F. 1869
Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist F.S.E. 1973
Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary Zygmunt Szczesny Felinski 1857
Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Conception F.S.I.C. Refugio Morales 1874
Franciscan Sisters of Mary Immaculate 1893
Franciscan Sisters of Penance of the Sorrowful Mother T.O.R. 1988
Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration O.S.F. 1849
Fransalians (Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales) M.S.F.S. 1838
Friars of St. Francis F.S.F. 1993
Good Shepherd Sisters R.G.S. 1641
Grey Nuns G.N.S.H. 1738
Handmaids of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity A.A.S.C. 1950
Handmaids of the Precious Blood H.P.B. 1947
Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus A.A.S.C. 1877
Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mary and Joseph 1978
Hermits of Saint Bruno H.S.B. 2001
Holy Cross Fathers (Congregation of Holy Cross) C.S.C. 1837
Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters (Pink Sisters) S.Sp.S.A.P. Arnold Janssen 1896
Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus 1200s
Infant Jesus Sisters I.J. Nicolas Barre 1666
Institut du Clerge Patriarcal de Bzommar I.C.P.B. 1749
Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest I.C.R.S.S. 1990
Institute of the Incarnate Word I.V.E. 1984
Josephite Fathers (St. Joseph’s Society of the Sacred Heart) S.S.J. 1893
Legion of Christ L.C. 1941
Little Brothers of the Gospel 1956
Little Brothers of Jesus 1933
Little Brothers of St Francis L.B.S.F. 1970
Little Sisters of the Assumption 1865
Little Sisters of the Gospel 1963
Little Sisters of Jesus 1933
Little Sisters of Jesus and Mary 1974
Little Sisters of the Poor L.S.P. 1800s
Lovers of the Holy Cross 1670
Loreto Sisters (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary) I.B.V.M. 1609
Marian Fathers M.I.C. 1673
Marian Sisters (Marian Sisters of the Diocese of Lincoln) M.S. 1952
Marianists (Society of Mary) S.M. 1817
Marianist Sisters (Daughters of Mary Immaculate) F.M.I. 1816
Marianites of Holy Cross M.S.C. 1841
Marist Brothers F.M.S. 1817
Marists (Society of Mary) S.M. 1816
Maryknoll (Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America) M.M. 1911
Miles Christi M.C. 1984
Mission Helpers of The Sacred Heart M.H.S.H. 1890
Missionaries of Charity M.C. 1950
Missionaries of La Salette M.S. 1852
Missionaries of Mary 2007
Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo) C.S. 1887
Missionaries of the Gospel of Life 2005
Missionaries of the Poor M.O.P. 1981
Missionaries of the Precious Blood (Precious Blood Fathers) C.PP.S. 1815
Missionaries of the Sacred Heart M.S.C. 1854
Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary 1836
Missionary Congregation for the Blessed Sacrament 1933
Missionary Society of St. Columban (Columbans) S.S.C. 1916
Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem 1975
Montfort Missionaries (Company of Mary) S.M.M. 1705
Oblate Apostles of the Two Hearts O.A.T.H. 1995
Oblate Sisters of Providence O.S.P. 1829
Oblates of Mary Immaculate O.M.I. 1816
Oblates of St. Joseph O.S.J. 1878
Oblates of the Virgin Mary O.M.V. 1827
Oratorians (Oratory of St. Philip Neri) C.O. or Cong. Orat. Philip Neri 1500s
Pallottines (Society of the Catholic Apostolate) S.A.C. 1835
Paris Foreign Missions Society M.E.P. 1658
Passionists (Congregation of the Passion) C.P. 1720
Passionist Sisters 1850s
Patrician Brothers F.S.P. 1808
Paulist Fathers (Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle) C.S.P. 1858
Pious Disciples of the Divine Master P.D.D.M. 1924
Sisters of the Reparation of the Holy Face 1950
Poor Clares Ordo Sanctae Clarae O.S.C. Clare of Assisi 1212
Poor Clares of Santa Barbara
Poor Clare Nuns of Perpetual Adoration 1854
Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici
Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary P.B.V.M. 1775
Presentation Brothers F.P.M. 1802
Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter
Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Petri
F.S.S.P. 1988
Putri Karmel 1982
Racine Dominican Sisters 1862
Redemptorists (Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer) C.Ss.R. 1732
Les Religieuses de Notre-Dame-du-Sacre-Coeur 1924
Religious of the Assumption R.A. 1839
Religious of Christian Education 1817
Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary R.S.H.M. 1849
Religious of the Virgin Mary R.V.M. 1684
Religious Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Michigan R.S.M. 1973
Religious Sisters of Charity 1815
Resurrectionists C.R. 1836
Rogationists of the Heart of Jesus R.C.J. 1897
Rosminians (Institute of Charity) I.C. 1828
Salesians of St. John Bosco S.D.B. 1857
Salesian Sisters (Daughters of Mary Help of Christians) F.M.A. 1872
Salvatorians (Society of the Divine Savior) S.D.S. 1881
School Sisters of Christ the King 1976
School Sisters of Notre Dame S.S.N.D. 1833
School Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis 1873
Sinsinawa Dominican Sisters 1847
Sister Adorers of the Precious Blood R.P.G. 1861
Sisters Adorers of the Royal Heart of Jesus Christ Sovereign Priest 2004
Sisters of Adoration, Slaves of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity 1850
Sisters of the Apostolic Carmel 1870
Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament 1891
Sisters of the Cenacle R.C. 1826
Sisters of Charity S.C. 1633
Sisters of Charity of Saints Bartolomaea Capitanio & Vincenza Gerosa S.C.C.G. 1832
Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati 1829
Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth 1858
Sisters of Charity of New York 1846
Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary B.V.M. 1831
Sisters of Charity of the Immaculate Conception 1854
Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word 1866
Sisters of Charity of Jesus and Mary 1803
Sisters of Charity of Our Lady of Mercy 1829
Sisters of Charity of Providence S.P. 1844
Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth 1859
Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition 1947
Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul 1849
Vincentian Sisters of Charity V.S.C. 1902
Sisters of the Destitute 1927
Sisters of the Divine Compassion 1886
Sisters of Charity of Seton Hill 1870
Sisters of the Holy Cross C.S.C. 1837
Sisters of the Holy Family 1837
Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 1875
Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary S.N.J.M. 1844
Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of Castres Emilie de Villeneuve 1800s
Sisters of Jesus, Our Hope S.J.H.
Sisters of Life S.V. 1991
Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist O.P. 1997
Sisters of Mercy R.S.M. 1831
Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur S.N.D. or S.N.D. de N. 1803
Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy 1862
Sisters of Providence of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods S.P. 1840
Sisters of Providence of St. Vincent de Paul S.P. 1861
Sisters of La Retraite Catherine de Francheville 1674
Sisters of Saint Agnes 1858
Sisters of Saint Dorothy (Dorotheans) S.S.D. Paula Frassinetti 1834
Sisters of Saint Elizabeth 1842
Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi 1849
Sisters of St Francis of the Martyr St George F.S.G.M. 1869
Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity 1835
Sisters of Saint Francis of Rochester, Minnesota 1877
Sisters of St Joseph (Sisters of Saint Joseph of Medaille) C.S.J. 1650
Sisters of Saint Joseph of Bourg S.S.J. 1650
Sisters of St. Joseph of Chambery 1812
Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace 1884
Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart S.S.J. 1866
Sisters of St. Joseph of the Third Order of St. Francis 1901
Sisters of Saint Martha 1900
Sisters of St Rita 1911
Sisters of St Therese of the Child Jesus (St Therese Sisters) S.S.Th. Maria Crocifissa Curcio 1900s
Sisters of Social Service S.S.S. 1926
Sisters of the Visitation 1610
Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary – I.H.M. 1845
Sisters, Servants of the Lord and the Virgin of Matara S.S.V.M. 1988
Sisters, Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus S.S.C.J. 1894
Society of African Missions
Societas Missionum ad Afros
S.M.A. 1850
Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls 1856
Society of the Holy Child Jesus S.H.C.J. 1846
Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity S.O.L.T. 1958
Society of St. Edmund S.S.E. 1843
Society of Saint Paul S.S.P. 1914
Society of the Sacred Heart R.S.C.J. 1800
Sovereign Military Order of Malta (Order of Malta) S.M.O.M. 1099
Spiritans (Congregation of the Holy Ghost)
Congregatio Sancti Spiritus
C.S.Sp. Claude Poullart des Places 1703
Stigmatines (Congregation of the Sacred Stigmata) C.S.S. 1816
Sulpician Fathers (Society of Saint Sulpice) S.S. or P.S.S. 1642
Tertiary Sisters of St. Francis, Cameroon 1700
Verbum Dei Missionary Fraternity M.V.D.F. 1963
Viatorians (Clerics of Saint Viator) C.S.V. 1831
Heralds of the Gospel John Scognamiglio Cla Dias 1970
Virgo Flos Carmeli (Regina Virginum) E.P. 2001
Vincentian Congregation V.C. 1904
Vocationists (The Society of Divine Vocations) S.D.V. 1927
White Fathers M.Afr. 1868
Xaverian Brothers C.F.X. 1839
Xaverian Missionaries (Missionary Society of St. Francis Xavier) S.X. 1895

Reprint from


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Country House Christmas Pudding

Country House Christmas Pudding


1 cup Christian Bros Brandy ½ cup Myer’s Dark Rum ½ cup Jim Beam Whiskey 1 cup currants 1 cup sultana raisins 1 cup pitted prunes finely chopped 1 med. apple peeled and grated ½ cup chopped dried apricots ½ cup candied orange peel finely chopped 1 ¼ cup [...] Read more →

Modern Slow Cookers, A Critical Design Flaw

Modern slow cookers come in all sizes and colors with various bells and whistles, including timers and shut off mechanisms. They also come with a serious design flaw, that being the lack of a proper domed lid.

The first photo below depict a popular model Crock-Pot® sold far and wide [...] Read more →

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Translated into English by PANCHAM SINH

Panini Office, Allahabad [1914]


There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves [...] Read more →

Method of Restoration for Ancient Bronzes and other Alloys

Cannone nel castello di Haut-Koenigsbourg, photo by Gita Colmar

Without any preliminary cleaning the bronze object to be treated is hung as cathode into the 2 per cent. caustic soda solution and a low amperage direct current is applied. The object is suspended with soft copper wires and is completely immersed into [...] Read more →

Palermo Wine

Take to every quart of water one pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day. You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it [...] Read more →

Gout Remedies

Jan Verkolje Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe gout or uric acid crystals 1679.

For one suffering gout, the following vitamins, herbs, and extracts may be worth looking into:

Vitamin C Folic Acid – Folic Acid is a B vitamin and is also known as B9 – [Known food [...] Read more →

The Kalmar War

Wojna Kalmarska – 1611

The Kalmar War

From The Historian’s History of the World (In 25 Volumes) by Henry Smith William L.L.D. – Vol. XVI.(Scandinavia) Pg. 308-310

The northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, as already noticed, had been peopled from the remotest times by nomadic tribes called Finns or Cwenas by [...] Read more →

The Basics of Painting in the Building Trade

PAINTER-WORK, in the building trade. When work is painted one or both of two distinct ends is achieved, namely the preservation and the coloration of the material painted. The compounds used for painting—taking the word as meaning a thin protective or decorative coat—are very numerous, including oil-paint of many kinds, distemper, whitewash, [...] Read more →

English Fig Wine

Take the large blue figs when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine.

Then slice some other figs and let them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced [...] Read more →

Sir Joshua Reynolds – Notes from Rome

“The Leda, in the Colonna palace, by Correggio, is dead-coloured white and black, with ultramarine in the shadow ; and over that is scumbled, thinly and smooth, a warmer tint,—I believe caput mortuum. The lights are mellow ; the shadows blueish, but mellow. The picture is painted on panel, in [...] Read more →

Fruits of the Empire: Licorice Root and Juice

Liquorice, the roots of Glycirrhiza Glabra, a perennial plant, a native of the south of Europe, but cultivated to some extent in England, particularly at Mitcham, in Surrey.

Its root, which is its only valuable part, is long, fibrous, of a yellow colour, and when fresh, very juicy. [...] Read more →

The Standard Navy Cutter and a Whale Boat Design

Dec. 24, 1898 Forest and Stream Pg. 513-514

The Standard Navy Boats.

Above we find,

The accompanying illustrations show further details of the standard navy boats, the lines of which appeared last week. In all of these boats, as stated previously, the quality of speed has been given [...] Read more →

Mrs. Beeton’s Poultry & Game – Choosing Poultry

To Choose Poultry.

When fresh, the eyes should be clear and not sunken, the feet limp and pliable, stiff dry feet being a sure indication that the bird has not been recently killed; the flesh should be firm and thick and if the bird is plucked there should be no [...] Read more →

Texas Tarpon

Early Texas photo of Tarpon catch – Not necessarily the one mentioned below…

July 2, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg.10

Texas Tarpon.

Tarpon, Texas.—Mr. W. B. Leach, of Palestine, Texas, caught at Aransas Pass Islet, on June 14, the largest tarpon on record here taken with rod and reel. The [...] Read more →

The Real Time Piece Gentleman and the Digital Watch Vault

Paul Thorpe, Brighton, U.K.

The YouTube watch collecting world is rather tight-knit and small, but growing, as watches became a highly coveted commodity during the recent world-wide pandemic and fueled an explosion of online watch channels.

There is one name many know, The Time Piece Gentleman. This name for me [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

How to Distinguish Fishes


Sept. 3, 1898. Forest and Stream Pg. 188-189

How to Distinguish Fishes.

BY FRED MATHER. The average angler knows by sight all the fish which he captures, but ask him to describe one and he is puzzled, and will get off on the color of the fish, which is [...] Read more →

CIA 1950s Unevaluated UFO Intelligence



INROMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENT OR RADIO BROADCASTS COUNTRY: Non-Orbit SUBJECT: Military – Air – Scientific – Aeronautics HOW PUBLISHED: Newspapers WHERE PUBLISHED: As indicated DATE PUBLISHED: 12 Dec 1953 – 12 Jan 1954 LANGUAGE: Various SOURCE: As indicated REPORT NO. 00-W-30357 DATE OF INFORMATION: 1953-1954 DATE DIST. 27 [...] Read more →

Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events

In July of 1968, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), published NASA Technical Report TR R-277 titled Chronological Catalog of Recorded Lunar Events.

The catalog begins with the first entry dated November 26th, 1540 at ∼05h 00m:

Feature: Region of Calippus2 Description: Starlike appearance on dark side Observer: Observers at Worms Reference: [...] Read more →

A Conversation between H.F. Leonard and K. Higashi

H.F. Leonard was an instructor in wrestling at the New York Athletic Club. Katsukum Higashi was an instructor in Jujitsu.

“I say with emphasis and without qualification that I have been unable to find anything in jujitsu which is not known to Western wrestling. So far as I can see, [...] Read more →

How Long is Your Yacht?

Dominion, Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club,Winner of Seawanhaka Cup, 1898.

The Tail Wags the Dog.

The following is a characteristic sample of those broad and liberal views on yachting which are the pride of the Boston Herald. Speaking of the coming races for the Seawanhaka international challenge cup, it says:

[...] Read more →

Proper Book Handling and Cleaning

Book Conservators, Mitchell Building, State Library of New South Wales, 29.10.1943, Pix Magazine

The following is taken verbatim from a document that appeared several years ago in the Maine State Archives. It seems to have been removed from their website. I happened to have made a physical copy of it at the [...] Read more →

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.


“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

King Arthur Legends, Myths, and Maidens

King Arthur, Legends, Myths & Maidens is a massive book of Arthurian legends. This limited edition paperback was just released on Barnes and Noble at a price of $139.00. Although is may seem a bit on the high side, it may prove to be well worth its price as there are only [...] Read more →

The Fowling Piece – Part I

THE FOWLING PIECE, from the Shooter’s Guide by B. Thomas – 1811.

I AM perfectly aware that a large volume might be written on this subject; but, as my intention is to give only such information and instruction as is necessary for the sportsman, I shall forbear introducing any extraneous [...] Read more →

U.S. Coast Guard Radio Information for Boaters

VHF Marifoon Sailor RT144, by S.J. de Waard


Effective 01 August, 2013, the U. S. Coast Guard terminated its radio guard of the international voice distress, safety and calling frequency 2182 kHz and the international digital selective calling (DSC) distress and safety frequency 2187.5 kHz. Additionally, [...] Read more →

The Perfect Salad Dressing

The following recipes are from a small booklet entitled 500 Delicious Salads that was published for the Culinary Arts Institute in 1940 by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc. 153 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.

If you have been looking for a way to lighten up your salads and be free of [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.


THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

Artist Methods

Como dome facade – Pliny the Elder – Photo by Wolfgang Sauber

Work in Progress…


Every substance may be considered as a varnish, which, when applied to the surface of a solid body, gives it a permanent lustre. Drying oil, thickened by exposure to the sun’s heat or [...] Read more →

Making Apple Cider Vinegar

The greatest cause of failure in vinegar making is carelessness on the part of the operator. Intelligent separation should be made of the process into its various steps from the beginning to end.


The apples should be clean and ripe. If not clean, undesirable fermentations [...] Read more →

The Legacy of Felix de Weldon

Felix Weihs de Weldon, age 96, died broke in the year 2003 after successive bankruptcies and accumulating $4 million dollars worth of debt. Most of the debt was related to the high cost of love for a wife living with Alzheimer’s. Health care costs to maintain his first wife, Margot, ran $500 per [...] Read more →

The First Greek Book by John Williams White

Click here to read The First Greek Book by John Williams White

The First Greek Book - 15.7MB



The death, on May 9, of John Williams White, professor of Greek in Harvard University, touches a large number of classical [...] Read more →

Clover Wine

Add 3 quarts clover blossoms* to 4 quarts of boiling water removed from heat at point of boil. Let stand for three days. At the end of the third day, drain the juice into another container leaving the blossoms. Add three quarts of fresh water and the peel of one lemon to the blossoms [...] Read more →

The Age of Chivalry


On the decline of the Roman power, about five centuries after Christ, the countries of Northern Europe were left almost destitute of a national government. Numerous chiefs, more or less powerful, held local sway, as far as each could enforce his dominion, and occasionally those [...] Read more →

Money Saving Recipe for Gold Leaf Sizing

Artisans world-wide spend a fortune on commercial brand oil-based gold leaf sizing. The most popular brands include Luco, Dux, and L.A. Gold Leaf. Pricing for quart size containers range from $35 to $55 depending upon retailer pricing.

Fast drying sizing sets up in 2-4 hours depending upon environmental conditions, humidity [...] Read more →

Classic Restoration of a Spring Tied Upholstered Chair


This video by AT Restoration is the best hands on video I have run across on the basics of classic upholstery. Watch a master at work. Simply amazing.


Round needles: Double pointed hand needle: Hand tools: Staple gun (for beginner): Compressor [...] Read more →

Cup of Tea? To be or not to be

Twinings London – photo by Elisa.rolle

Is the tea in your cup genuine?

The fact is, had one been living in the early 19th Century, one might occasionally encounter a counterfeit cup of tea. Food adulterations to include added poisonings and suspect substitutions were a common problem in Europe at [...] Read more →

Of the Room and Furniture

Crewe Hall Dining Room


THE transient tenure that most of us have in our dwellings, and the absorbing nature of the struggle that most of us have to make to win the necessary provisions of life, prevent our encouraging the manufacture of well-wrought furniture.

We mean to outgrow [...] Read more →

The First Pineapple Grown in England

First Pineapple Grown in England

Click here to read an excellent article on the history of pineapple growing in the UK.

Should one be interested in serious mass scale production, click here for scientific resources.

Growing pineapples in the UK.

The video below demonstrates how to grow pineapples in Florida.

[...] Read more →

A History of Fowling – Ravens and Jays

From A History of Fowling, Being an Account of the Many Curios Devices by Which Wild Birds are, or Have Been, Captured in Different Parts of the World by Rev. H.A. MacPherson, M.A.

THE RAVEN (Corvus corax) is generally accredited with a large endowment of mother wit. Its warning [...] Read more →

Cleaning Watch Chains

To Clean Watch Chains.

Gold or silver watch chains can be cleaned with a very excellent result, no matter whether they may be matt or polished, by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia; they are then rinsed in alcohol, and finally. shaken in clean sawdust, free from sand. [...] Read more →

Banana Propagation

Banana Propagation

Reprinted from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (

The traditional means of obtaining banana planting material (“seed”) is to acquire suckers from one’s own banana garden, from a neighbor, or from a more distant source. This method served to spread common varieties around the world and to multiply them [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Musquash

Hudson Bay: Trappers, 1892. N’Talking Musquash.’ Fur Trappers Of The Hudson’S Bay Company Talking By A Fire. Engraving After A Drawing By Frederic Remington, 1892.

Indian Modes of Hunting.


In Canada and the United States, the killing of the little animal known under the several names of [...] Read more →

The Charge of the Light Brigade

Officers and men of the 13th Light Dragoons, British Army, Crimea. Rostrum photograph of photographer’s original print, uncropped and without color correction. Survivors of the Charge.

Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the [...] Read more →

Traditional JuJutsu Health, Strength and Combat Tricks

Jujitsu training 1920 in Japanese agricultural school.



In the writer’s opinion it becomes necessary to make at this point some suggestions relative to a very important part of the training in jiu-jitsu. [...] Read more →

Protecting Rare Books: How to Build a Silverfish Trap

Silverfish damage to book – photo by Micha L. Rieser

The beauty of hunting silverfish is that they are not the most clever of creatures in the insect kingdom.

Simply take a small clean glass jar and wrap it in masking tape. The masking tape gives the silverfish something to [...] Read more →

The Billesden Coplow Run

*note – Billesdon and Billesden have both been used to name the hunt.


[From “Reminiscences of the late Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq”]

The run celebrated in the following verses took place on the 24th of February, 1800, when Mr. Meynell hunted Leicestershire, and has since been [...] Read more →

Cleaner for Gilt Picture Frames

Cleaner for Gilt Frames.

Calcium hypochlorite…………..7 oz. Sodium bicarbonate……………7 oz. Sodium chloride………………. 2 oz. Distilled water…………………12 oz.


Home Top of Pg. Read more →

The Human Seasons

John Keats

Four Seasons fill the measure of the year; There are four seasons in the mind of man: He has his lusty spring, when fancy clear Takes in all beauty with an easy span; He has his Summer, when luxuriously Spring’s honied cud of youthful thoughts he loves To ruminate, and by such [...] Read more →

Here’s Many a Year to You

” Here’s many a year to you ! Sportsmen who’ve ridden life straight. Here’s all good cheer to you ! Luck to you early and late.

Here’s to the best of you ! You with the blood and the nerve. Here’s to the rest of you ! What of a weak moment’s swerve ? [...] Read more →

The Cremation of Sam McGee

Robert W. Service (b.1874, d.1958)


There are strange things done in the midnight sun By the men who moil for gold; The Arctic trails have their secret tales That would make your blood run cold; The Northern Lights have seen queer sights, But the queerest they ever did see Was that night [...] Read more →

British Craftsmanship is Alive and Well

The Queen Elizabeth Trust, or QEST, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of British craftsmanship through the funding of scholarships and educational endeavours to include apprenticeships, trade schools, and traditional university classwork. The work of QEST is instrumental in keeping alive age old arts and crafts such as masonry, glassblowing, shoemaking, [...] Read more →

The Snipe

THE SNIPE, from the Shooter’s Guide by B. Thomas – 1811

AFTER having given a particular description of the woodcock, it will only. be necessary to observe, that the plumage and shape of the snipe is much the same ; and indeed its habits and manners sets bear a great [...] Read more →

Rendering Amber Clear for Use in Lens-Making for Magnifying Glass

by John Partridge,drawing,1825

From the work of Sir Charles Lock Eastlake entitled Materials for a history of oil painting, (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846), we learn the following:

The effect of oil at certain temperatures, in penetrating “the minute pores of the amber” (as Hoffman elsewhere writes), is still more [...] Read more →

Coffee & Cigarettes

Aw, the good old days, meet in the coffee shop with a few friends, click open the Zippo, inhale a glorious nosegay of lighter fluid, fresh roasted coffee and a Marlboro cigarette….

A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

We conducted a [...] Read more →

The Intaglio Processes for Audubon’s Birds of America

Notes on the intaglio processes of the most expensive book on birds available for sale in the world today.

The Audubon prints in “The Birds of America” were all made from copper plates utilizing four of the so called “intaglio” processes, engraving, etching, aquatint, and drypoint. Intaglio [...] Read more →

The Apparatus of the Stock Market


The components of any given market place include both physical structures set up to accommodate trading, and participants to include buyers, sellers, brokers, agents, barkers, pushers, auctioneers, agencies, and propaganda outlets, and banking or transaction exchange facilities.

Markets are generally set up by sellers as it is in their [...] Read more →

Country Cabbage and Pea Soup

Add the following ingredients to a four or six quart crock pot, salt & pepper to taste keeping in mind that salt pork is just that, cover with water and cook on high till it boils, then cut back to low for four or five hours. A slow cooker works well, I [...] Read more →

Catholic Religious Orders

Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the mendicant Order of Friars Minor, as painted by El Greco.

Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are one of two types of religious institutes (‘Religious Institutes’, cf. canons 573–746), the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. They are organizations of laity [...] Read more →

A Couple of Classic Tennessee Squirrel Recipes


3-4 Young Squirrels, dressed and cleaned 1 tsp. Morton Salt or to taste 1 tsp. McCormick Black Pepper or to taste 1 Cup Martha White All Purpose Flour 1 Cup Hog Lard – Preferably fresh from hog killing, or barbecue table

Cut up three to [...] Read more →

On Bernini’s Bust of a Stewart King

As reported in the The Colac Herald on Friday July 17, 1903 Pg. 8 under Art Appreciation as a reprint from the Westminster Gazette


The appreciation of art as well as of history which is entertained by the average member of the [...] Read more →

The Charge of the Light Brigade

Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!” he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Home Top of [...] Read more →

Horn Measurement

Jul. 23, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 65

Horn Measurements.

Editor Forest and Stream: “Record head.” How shamefully this term is being abused, especially in the past three years; or since the giant moose from Alaska made his appearance in public and placed all former records (so far as [...] Read more →

The Hunt Saboteur

The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace barking out loud, black mask on her face get those dogs off, get them off she did yell until a swift kick from me mare her voice it did quell and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale to the full cry of hounds drowning out her [...] Read more →

Chantry Chapels

William Wyggeston’s chantry house, built around 1511, in Leicester: The building housed two priests, who served at a chantry chapel in the nearby St Mary de Castro church. It was sold as a private dwelling after the dissolution of the chantries.

A Privately Built Chapel

Chantry, chapel, generally within [...] Read more →

Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport. Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally [...] Read more →

Painting Plaster Work and the History of Terra Cotta

The 1896 Victorian terracotta Bell Edison Telephone Building – 17 & 19 Newhall Street, Birmingham, England. A grade I listed building designed by Frederick Martin of the firm Martin & Chamberlain. Now offices for firms of architects. Photographed 10 May 2006 by Oosoom

[Reprint from Victoria and Albert Museum included below on [...] Read more →

The Stock Exchange Specialist

New York Stock Exchange Floor September 26,1963

The Specialist as a member of a stock exchange has two functions.’ He must execute orders which other members of an exchange may leave with him when the current market price is away from the price of the orders. By executing these orders on behalf [...] Read more →

Peach Brandy


2 gallons + 3 quarts boiled water 3 qts. peaches, extremely ripe 3 lemons, cut into sections 2 sm. pkgs. yeast 10 lbs. sugar 4 lbs. dark raisins

Place peaches, lemons and sugar in crock. Dissolve yeast in water (must NOT be to hot). Stir thoroughly. Stir daily for 7 days. Keep [...] Read more →

Art Fraud

A la Russie, aux ânes et aux autres – by Chagall – 1911

Marc Chagall is one of the most forged artists on the planet. Mark Rothko fakes also abound. According to available news reports, the art market is littered with forgeries of their work. Some are even thought to be [...] Read more →

What’s the Matter?

A rhetorical question? Genuine concern?

In this essay we are examining another form of matter otherwise known as national literary matters, the three most important of which being the Matter of Rome, Matter of France, and the Matter of England.

Our focus shall be on the Matter of England or [...] Read more →

Platform of the American Institute of Banking in 1919

Resolution adapted at the New Orleans Convention of the American Institute of Banking, October 9, 1919:

“Ours is an educational association organized for the benefit of the banking fraternity of the country and within our membership may be found on an equal basis both employees and employers; [...] Read more →

Books of Use to the International Art Collector

Hebborn Piranesi

Before meeting with an untimely death at the hand of an unknown assassin in Rome on January 11th, 1996, master forger Eric Hebborn put down on paper a wealth of knowledge about the art of forgery. In a book published posthumously in 1997, titled The Art Forger’s Handbook, Hebborn suggests [...] Read more →

King James Bible – Knights Templar Edition

Full Cover, rear, spine, and front

Published by Piranesi Press in collaboration with Country House Essays, this beautiful paperback version of the King James Bible is now available for $79.95 at Barnes and

This is a limited Edition of 500 copies Worldwide. Click here to view other classic books [...] Read more →

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

Reprint from the Royal Collection Trust Website

The meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, took place between 7 to 24 June 1520 in a valley subsequently called the Val d’Or, near Guisnes to the south of Calais. The [...] Read more →

Life Among the Thugee

The existence of large bodies of men having no other means of subsistence than those afforded by plunder, is, in all countries, too common to excite surprise; and, unhappily, organized bands of assassins are not peculiar to India! The associations of murderers known by the name of Thugs present, however, [...] Read more →

Proper Wines to Serve with Food

Foie gras with Sauternes, Photo by Laurent Espitallier

As an Appetizer

Pale dry Sherry, with or without bitters, chilled or not. Plain or mixed Vermouth, with or without bitters. A dry cocktail.

With Oysters, Clams or Caviar

A dry flinty wine such as Chablis, Moselle, Champagne. Home Top of [...] Read more →

King William III on Horseback by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Reprint from The Royal Collection Trust website:

Kneller was born in Lubeck, studied with Rembrandt in Amsterdam and by 1676 was working in England as a fashionable portrait painter. He painted seven British monarchs (Charles II, James II, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I and George II), though his [...] Read more →

The First Christian Man Cremated in America

Laurens’ portrait as painted during his time spent imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was kept for over a year after being captured at sea while serving as the United States minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

The first Christian white man to be cremated in America was [...] Read more →

Shooting in Wet Weather


Reprint from The Sportsman’s Cabinet and Town and Country Magazine, Vol I. Dec. 1832, Pg. 94-95

To the Editor of the Cabinet.


Possessing that anxious feeling so common among shooters on the near approach of the 12th of August, I honestly confess I was not able [...] Read more →