A Conversation between H.F. Leonard and K. Higashi

H.F. Leonard was an instructor in wrestling at the New York Athletic Club. Katsukum Higashi was an instructor in Jujitsu.

“I say with emphasis and without qualification that I have been unable to find anything in jujitsu which is not known to Western wrestling.  So far as I can see, jujitsu is nothing more than an oriental form of wrestling.  It is a boast of the exploiters of jujitsu that through it any weakling could render helpless even a well-trained athlete, and that, too, without inflicting any injury whatever upon the victim.  It would be an entertaining day in my life indeed were I to see such a feat accomplished.” —Statement by Mr. Leonard after an exhibition by Mr. Higashi. 

“American wrestlers are strong — much stronger than any of us pretend to be in muscular strength.  After all, however, wrestling is wrestling.  Against jujitsu it is mere child’s play.  I have met a number of Western wrestlers, and they are as helpless as babes against the art of jujitsu.  And no one versed in the art of jujitsu is mad enough to expect anything else.” — Statement by Mr. Higashi after an exhibition by Mr. Leonard. 

The following conversation took place in the year 1905 as published in the May edition of the Cosmopolitan Magazine.

MR. LEONARD, Mr. Higashi, said the seeker for a solution of the mystery of the difference between jujitsu and wrestling.

The young master of jujitsu rose; he measured scarce five feet four, and you could see at a glance that the author of his being had a keen eye to the economy of space; in the physical making of him compactness rather than weight was emphasized.  The hand he shook in friendly greeting belonged to one every inch of whose body seemed to say to you, “By these signs shall ye know wherein a strong man is enshrined.”

“What are the objects of wrestling?: the person who acted as a sort of master of the ceremonies asked of its exponent, preliminary to the exhibition which was to take place.  To which Mr. Leonard replied: “To make a man healthy – and in making his body healthy, the mental conditions are improved at the same time- to develop the highest possible point his muscular strength, to teach him how to use it in a physical contest properly and to the best advantage against his opponent, to increase the steadiness of his nerves, to sharpen the keenness Of his vision and to teach him to read with dispatch and accuracy, almost by instinct, the many and rapidly shifting conditions of the minds of the men called moods-these are some of the main objects of wrestling.”

“And what is jujitsu?”

Mr. Higashi—“What we always keep in view as the end and aim of the art of jujitsu is quite distinct from wrestling.  To be sure, all that has just been mentioned is the goal toward which one aspect of jujitsu training also strives.  But there are three stages in jujitsu.  Between the first and wrestling there is not much difference.  Wrestling, both in Nippon and in the West, has the distinct ends in view that you have just described; it forms a distinct program of gymnastics in itself; it is not a part of something else – a means to an end. With jujitsu, the holds and tricks of wrestling are an elementary step to lead a man to something else. Naturally you have developed to a greater extent than we have done in the first and elementary stage of jujitsu, and to a higher state of perfection, those holds and tricks, which are confined to wrestling. Whoever would understand the true meaning of the art of jujitsu must always keep this in mind – that the end of jujitsu is self-defense.  The science and practice of jujitsu both end in discovering and attaining as effective and relatively perfect a means of self-defense as possible under all manners of attacks.

“In jujitsu training many conditions are imposed upon us which are out of place with any other athletic sports.  When you are attacked on the street, for instance, you would rarely find yourself or the assailant stripped to the skin, and so we require the students of jujitsu to go though their exercises in their street costume, and those of us who can hardly afford to spoil a suit every time we upon the training mat wear these jackets and girdles, which would take the place, to all practical purposes, of the street costumes of Tokyo.  This also is the reason why in jujitsu we do not put a fence about the style of tricks and attacks and call any of them foul.  When you are abroad at night – and on such occasions it is that training in jujitsu is most likely to serve you – you can hardly dictate the manner of attack to a thug. If effective as method of self-defense at all, jujitsu must train persons to be prepared for all imaginable methods of attack and assault.  “There are are one hundred and sixty ‘hands,’ or tricks, in the three departments of jujitsu.  Besides these, and outranking them all, there are ten tricks, which are so secret that they are almost sacred to the devotees of jujitsu.  They are usually handed down from one master to another, much after the manner of family secrets. Now, a large majority of all these are considered foul in wrestling.”

Mr. Leonard—“But the dangerous tricks and holds which you speak of as being ruled out in our wrestling are, I am certain, thoroughly well known to all wrestlers worth the name in this country. And as for the claim of jujitsu in regard to its secret tricks, I have never seen them demonstrated against a thoroughly trained wrestler.  I am not afraid of spooks, nor of the miracles attributed to the master of jujitsu.  I am happy to say that I a in a position to afford my statement something a little more solid that mere words.”

Mr. Higashi—“First, let me continue. Jujitsu is neither a sport nor a pastime; instead of on a mat, or in a sanded circle, as with wrestling, its area is wherever an attack awaits you. As a matter of fact, the purely gymnastic feature of jujitsu is of a late development.  Some two hundred years ago, in the city of Kyoto, there lived a master of jujitsu called Suzuki.  There he opened a training hall; and history points to that as the beginning of scientific jujitsu in Nippon.  In this days, he taught and practiced only those tricks, or hands, which are now called serious tricks.  He and his school confined themselves to the first or the final stage of the three divisions of jujitsu as known at the present day. Samurai went abroad with their two swords at their belts, in those days, and the Kyoto master used to train his men wit the two swords at their belts. When you were seized from behind and a pair of powerful arms held your weapons against your body so that you could not draw them, he taught a trick, which would set them at liberty.  “Judo-as jujitsu is oftener called at hoe-spread all over the country, at Kumamoto was Hoshino, and Kago-shima, Tsutsumi was the acknowledged master.  And Tsutsumi, the Kogoshima master, was the first who extended the sphere of judo and included therein many gymnastic exercises. And those holds and tricks, which he taught, have been from his day called the simple tricks.  Mr. Kano, who is at the head of the Kano school of Tokyo today, took up judo where Tsutsumi left off, and added a number of exercises.  These largely from the simple trick of the 3rd department of judo.

“As you see, then, judo as it exists in Nippon today has three stages of development.  It starts with the third, or the elementary stage, with simple gymnastic exercises. Between these simple tricks and the holds in wrestling there is a good deal of resemblance. Only, these simple tricks are a means to an end; they are modified to serve the specific end of self-defense, and under somewhat different circumstances than those of wrestling.  Moreover, these simple tricks are always arranged with an eye to their serving as preliminary steps to the serious tricks.

When meeting a wrestler on a mat, a jujitsu-shi always employs all these simple tricks, and also some of the simple tricks belonging to the second division of judo. And in this department, there are only fifty tricks, whereas you have in Western wrestling some two hundred different holds. To sum up, the end and aim of judo is, as I tried to emphasize, self-defense.  With the simple tricks of the third division, is practically impossible to overcome an American wrestler, as he is usually much superior in strength.”

Mr. Leonard—“As I understand it, then, the purely athletic, or gymnastic holds which jujitsu teaches are in no wise different, in general, from the holds known to an ordinary wrestler, and it is only by its mysterious ‘secret tricks’ that jujitsu claims to be able to work its wonders. But if he aim and end of jujitsu is wholly self-defense, and no means are hold to be too unfair to employed, Why should jujitsu concern itself with athletics at all? I should very much like to see an exhibition of thee mysterious powers. Can you not illustrate to me how these trick are don?”

Mr. Higashi—“That would be impossible without incurring danger, which I am unwilling to do.  A friend of mine once broke the arm of a student at an American college, and was in much danger of arrest. I do not care to run a similar risk. But I may explain that the most essential element in the make-up of a good jujitsu master is the mind. Will-power is the faculty of the mind that plays the most  prominent part in the art of judo.  Then, near the center of equilibrium of which, so to speak, can hardly be shaken.  Then, a pretty good knowledge of anatomy.  After that, all is practice.  Unlike wrestling, weight does not count in judo.  In fact, in a number of cases, it would be easier to train a weak man to master judo than a strong one.  A man naturally strong in muscular powers will, consciously or unconsciously, rely much upon his mere strength.  In judo, it is essential that one learn to utilize the strength of his opponent against himself.  The fist thing which we try to teach, is to attain as perfect a state of bodily passivity as possible.  And this the reason why in so many cases women are better candidates for the mastery of judo than men. Another thing we try to teach is how to fall upon hard ground or a floor without hurting oneself.  A drunkard who falls from a height is rarely seriously injured you know the reason , of course; the degree of hurt is in proportion to the resistance offered by the system. If one could learn to make oneself perfectly passive, one would seldom get hurt.  A number of masters of judo can break a pretty thick piece of marble tablet with a blow dealt by the edge of their open hands.  It is not the strength that breaks the tablet.it is the rapidity f motion.  A judo master ought to be able — I don’t not say every time, but nine times out of ten — to break the wrist of boxer, for example, with the edge of his open hand wherein the fist flies toward him.

“As I have said, the number of tricks is comparatively small, it is not hard to learn them.  Is is not quite so simple however, to train your eye and muscle to the proper speed. The rest is largely psychical.”

Mr. Leonard—“Does hypnotism play any part in the advanced stage of jujitsu?”

Mr. Higashi—“Not as such — that is to say, hypnotic influence as such has no place in the science of judo.  Nevertheless, I might say that hypnotism in a modified form certainly exists in judo.  Judo believes in the mastery of one mind over another in a contest. I can quite understand how it is that to the Western eye, a number of feats of judo must appear little short of miraculous.”

Mr. Leonard—“I have never seen any of those feats. Can you tell us some of those, which are rather commonly practiced? I should be interested to see some of these modern miracles.”

Mr. Higashi—“Take, for example, this case. If you or any one else would bring here two poles of bamboo and let them be put upon the floor closely together, I would pillow my neck upon them in such a manner that the two poles would support the nape of my neck. After that, two more poles of bamboo might be brought and laid upon my throat in such a way that the poles would sandwich my neck both from the front and on the back.  A pair of strong pieces of rope might then be taken and tied on either end of the bamboo poles, and rather forcibly, too. My neck would , naturally, compressed by this tightening.  You might then place yourself with all your weight on the bamboo poles on one side of my neck, and you might ask one of your friends to do same on the other side. These things done, all that I should ask you is to give me a signal and a second later I shall be out of the tight hugging of of the poles.  The neck is a rather important portion of the body, and all sorts of exercises are devised for its protection.

“Another thing: In Nippon our exercise-rooms are covered with padded mats, six feet by three in size. If a man happened to be sitting in one of these mat-covered rooms with me, and if it pleased his fancy to attack me, I could make one of the mats rise from floor and fight for me against my opponent.  I would simply kick one end f the mat between my opponent and myself, and send flying at him sot the edge would catch him in the abdomen or his face or by his legs, as the case might be.”

Mr. Leonard—“I have heard it said that you can, through jujitsu, kill a man and then bring back again to life at your pleasure.”

Mr. Higashi—“Oh yes, you rare speaking of the katsu.*(the word katsu means life) There are three principal katsu—no-katsu, kin-katsu and shime-katsu, according to the location where the reviving blow should be dealt, and also according to the manner of bringing the unconscious back to life.  Judo has no ambition to compete with professional man of medicine.  Sometimes one form of katsu is much more effective an much simpler than any means that medicine knows.  Breaking an opponent’s arms, neck, back, legs, are some of the objects to which a large number of the tricks of judo are devoted.  But the serious tricks almost altogether affect the very life of a man.  Not to every one, however, are given the secrets of serious tricks.  Before a man can receive them from his instructor, he must first of all prove to his satisfaction that he is a gentleman.  No master of judo for one moment thinks of so rash a thing as teaching the serious tricks to one of his pupils who has not time and time again proved that he can command his temper under mercilessly trying conditions.”

Mr. Leonard—“At about what age is the the training of a young man in judo begun in your country?”

Mr. Higashi—“At as early as seven or eight years.  Preliminary Trainings in judo are arranged in eight grades. Thee are few exceptional cases in which a beginner may successfully climb up the eighth within one year.  After passing the first grade, one can be said to have begun to understand something of the art of judo.  He then joins a class of beginners called shodan.  It is a far cry from this stage of his attainment to the mastery of judo.  It is the beginning of serious work; in the shodan stage a man usually learns the price, which one must pay to become the master of his body.  I suppose you do not commence the training in wrestling quite so early as that?”

Mr. Leonard—“No, we wait until they are older. Some boys are more mature at sixteen than others at eighteen. But seventeen is a good age: usually it is at about that age that American boys take whole-heartedly to the training and sport of wrestling, as well as to a number of other games.  Is it absolutely imperative that one should begin as early as seven years of age in order to become a master of judo?”

Mr. Higashi—“It is better that a man should begin his schooling as early as possible.  It is not absolutely essential, however.”

Mr. Leonard—“If a many of, say, twenty-five or thirty years of age, one hundred and ten pounds in weight, of sedentary habits and delicate constitution, ere to come to your to receive your instruction, would you be able to train him so that he would find it an easy matte defend himself against the attacks of a man of say, over two hundred pounds, powerfully built and well versed in the art of Western wrestling?”

Mr. Higashi—“Certainly, If the man happened to be a gentleman to the core, sober and sane in temper and high in principle, and if I only could be assured of this fact from the start, so that I should be in a position to entrust to his hands the secrets of serious tricks, six months would be ample time for him to become able to meet a man of twice his weight and three times his muscular strength and overcome him under all circumstances.”

Mr. Leonard—“You interest me, but I am not convinced.  Will you now show me some of the holds and tricks of jujitsu?  Afterward I will show you some of the principal holds of wrestling.  The serious tricks and the psychology I should be especially glad to have an illustration of, if that could be done.”

Mr. Higashi—“As I said, that cannot be done except at a risk which I am not willing to take.  I can, However, show you some holds by which we overcome an opponent.  By this hold(see Figure 2.) I might break your arm over my left leg, gripping you rigidly to the floor by my right hand on your neck.  Is it no so?”

Mr. Leonard—“I doubt if you could get such a hold on a scientific wrestler.  One of the cardinal principles of our wrestling is to keep the arms bent while in action, and this would make it very difficult for you to secure the hold you have on the left arm.  The throat hold could easily be broken  by turning to the left.”

Mr. Higashi—“That is a matter of opinion, and you might be able to break the hold, but I am sure I should break your arm.

Mr. Leonard—“I think I can show you a trick worth two of that.  I have you on the floor, on your knees (Figure 3.). I fling my left arm about your neck, grip it with my right hand an, and choke you. That is called a back strangle hold; it is one of the most brutal known to wrestling.  Here is another.  You are still on your knees. I force you flat on your face. (Figure 4), and with a half Nelson on the leg, which renders you helpless, I strain your knee and break your ankle”

Mr. Higashi—“Very well. Here is how I can throw you over my back, heavily, stunning you” (Figure 5.).

Mr. Leonard—“Quite right. That is hip-lock, well known to American wrestlers. Andre (Figure 6.) is a head-lock, by which an opponent can be thrown to the floor with such force as to end the contest.  Let me show you the octus (Figure 7.). The punishment by this hold is effected by jouncing an opponent and forcing his own weight upon his neck.  Another effective hold popular with wrestlers is the bar-hammer lock and half Nelson (Figure 1.), got by forcing the hammer-lock with the right hand.  In this position, either the arm will be broken or the shoulder dislocated.

Mr. Higashi—“I will show you another way in which I might throw you” (Figure 8).

Mr. Leonard— “The elbow-and-leg hold.  We also practice it. It is a good gold.”

Mr. Higashi—” Here is another way(Figure 9.) in which jujitsu teaches us to throw an opponent.

Mr. Leonard—“Yes; that hold was early used by American wrestlers. We call it the buttock.

Mr. Higashi—“Let me show how I might break your leg if I were on the floor and you’re about to spring on me (Figure 10.). By a quick jerk forward of your right foot with my right leg, and a hard drive of the my left against your knee, the weight of the your body would be sufficient to snap your leg at the knee.:

Mr. Leonard—“I can hardly imagine such a result”

Mr. Higashi—“Another way I Might break your arm is in this fashion: (Figure 11.).

Mr. Leonard— – “That position, it seems to me, would be almost impossible to secure.  I don not see how a strong arm could be bent back so as injure it.  You Japanese are clever and scientific; you evidently have the quality of muscle, upon which both you and we put no little emphasis. But I have yet to see anything that you show me which we could not match here in America, and in some respects improve upon.

Mr. Higashi— – “But I cannot show you our serious tricks.”

Mr. Leonard— “Ah!”

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Highlander Bible

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A Conversation between H.F. Leonard and K. Higashi

H.F. Leonard was an instructor in wrestling at the New York Athletic Club. Katsukum Higashi was an instructor in Jujitsu.

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Before meeting with an untimely death at the hand of an unknown assassin in Rome on January 11th, 1996, master forger Eric Hebborn put down on paper a wealth of knowledge about the art of forgery. In a book published posthumously in 1997, titled The Art Forger’s Handbook, Hebborn suggests [...] Read more →

Clairvoyance and Occult Powers

Vishnu as the Cosmic Man (Vishvarupa) Opaque watercolour on paper – Jaipur, Rajasthan c. 1800-50

 

CLAIRVOYANCE AND OCCULT POWERS

By Swami Panchadasi

Copyright, 1916

By Advanced Thought Pub. Co. Chicago, Il

INTRODUCTION.

In preparing this series of lessons for students of [...] Read more →

Painting Plaster Work and the History of Terra Cotta

The 1896 Victorian terracotta Bell Edison Telephone Building – 17 & 19 Newhall Street, Birmingham, England. A grade I listed building designed by Frederick Martin of the firm Martin & Chamberlain. Now offices for firms of architects. Photographed 10 May 2006 by Oosoom

[Reprint from Victoria and Albert Museum included below on [...] Read more →

List of the 60 Franklin Library Signed Limited Editions

The following highly collectible Franklin Library Signed Editions were published between 1977 and 1982. They are all fully leather bound with beautiful covers and contain gorgeous and rich silk moire endpapers. Signatures are protected by unattached tissue inserts.

The values listed are average prices that were sought by [...] Read more →

The Public Attitude Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.

THE PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARD SPECULATION

THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an [...] Read more →

Valentine Poetry from the Cotswold Explorer

 

There is nothing more delightful than a great poetry reading to warm ones heart on a cold winter night fireside. Today is one of the coldest Valentine’s days on record, thus, nothing could be better than listening to the resonant voice of Robin Shuckbrugh, The Cotswold [...] Read more →

A Summer Memory

 

Here, where these low lush meadows lie, We wandered in the summer weather, When earth and air and arching sky, Blazed grandly, goldenly together.

And oft, in that same summertime, We sought and roamed these self-same meadows, When evening brought the curfew chime, And peopled field and fold with shadows.

I mind me [...] Read more →

Ought King Leopold to be Hanged?

King Leopold Butcher of the Congo

For the somewhat startling suggestion in the heading of this interview, the missionary interviewed is in no way responsible. The credit of it, or, if you like, the discredit, belongs entirely to the editor of the Review, who, without dogmatism, wishes to pose the question as [...] Read more →

Blackberry Wine

BLACKBERRY WINE

5 gallons of blackberries 5 pound bag of sugar

Fill a pair of empty five gallon buckets half way with hot soapy water and a ¼ cup of vinegar. Wash thoroughly and rinse.

Fill one bucket with two and one half gallons of blackberries and crush with [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

Country Cabbage and Pea Soup

Add the following ingredients to a four or six quart crock pot, salt & pepper to taste keeping in mind that salt pork is just that, cover with water and cook on high till it boils, then cut back to low for four or five hours. A slow cooker works well, I [...] Read more →

A Cure for Distemper in Dogs

 

The following cure was found written on a front flyleaf in an 1811 3rd Ed. copy of The Sportsman’s Guide or Sportsman’s Companion: Containing Every Possible Instruction for the Juvenille Shooter, Together with Information Necessary for the Experienced Sportsman by B. Thomas.

 

Transcript:

Vaccinate your dogs when young [...] Read more →

A General Process for Making Wine

A General Process for Making Wine.

Gathering the Fruit Picking the Fruit Bruising the Fruit Vatting the Fruit Vinous Fermentation Drawing the Must Pressing the Must Casking the Must Spirituous Fermentation Racking the Wine Bottling and Corking the Wine Drinking the Wine

GATHERING THE FRUIT.

It is of considerable consequence [...] Read more →

Coffee & Cigarettes

Aw, the good old days, meet in the coffee shop with a few friends, click open the Zippo, inhale a glorious nosegay of lighter fluid, fresh roasted coffee and a Marlboro cigarette….

A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

We conducted a [...] Read more →

The Fowling Piece – Part I

THE FOWLING PIECE, from the Shooter’s Guide by B. Thomas – 1811.

I AM perfectly aware that a large volume might be written on this subject; but, as my intention is to give only such information and instruction as is necessary for the sportsman, I shall forbear introducing any extraneous [...] Read more →

Making Apple Cider Vinegar

The greatest cause of failure in vinegar making is carelessness on the part of the operator. Intelligent separation should be made of the process into its various steps from the beginning to end.

PRESSING THE JUICE

The apples should be clean and ripe. If not clean, undesirable fermentations [...] Read more →

Clover Wine

Add 3 quarts clover blossoms* to 4 quarts of boiling water removed from heat at point of boil. Let stand for three days. At the end of the third day, drain the juice into another container leaving the blossoms. Add three quarts of fresh water and the peel of one lemon to the blossoms [...] Read more →

Guaranteed 6% Dividend for Life. Any takers?

Any prudent investor would jump at the chance to receive a guaranteed 6% dividend for life. So how does one get in on this action?

The fact of the matter is…YOU can’t…That is unless you are a shareholder of one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and the banks under [...] Read more →

Fruits of the Empire: Licorice Root and Juice

Liquorice, the roots of Glycirrhiza Glabra, a perennial plant, a native of the south of Europe, but cultivated to some extent in England, particularly at Mitcham, in Surrey.

Its root, which is its only valuable part, is long, fibrous, of a yellow colour, and when fresh, very juicy. [...] Read more →

Glimpses from the Chase

From Fores’s Sporting Notes and Sketches, A Quarterly Magazine Descriptive of British, Indian, Colonial, and Foreign Sport with Thirty Two Full Page Illustrations Volume 10 1893, London; Mssrs. Fores Piccadilly W. 1893, All Rights Reserved.

GLIMPSES OF THE CHASE, Ireland a Hundred Years Ago. By ‘Triviator.’

FOX-HUNTING has, like Racing, [...] Read more →

King William III on Horseback by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Reprint from The Royal Collection Trust website:

Kneller was born in Lubeck, studied with Rembrandt in Amsterdam and by 1676 was working in England as a fashionable portrait painter. He painted seven British monarchs (Charles II, James II, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I and George II), though his [...] Read more →

Antibiotic Properties of Jungle Soil

If ever it could be said that there is such a thing as miracle healing soil, Ivan Sanderson said it best in his 1965 book entitled Ivan Sanderson’s Book of Great Jungles.

Sanderson grew up with a natural inclination towards adventure and learning. He hailed from Scotland but spent much [...] Read more →

How Long is Your Yacht?

Dominion, Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club,Winner of Seawanhaka Cup, 1898.

The Tail Wags the Dog.

The following is a characteristic sample of those broad and liberal views on yachting which are the pride of the Boston Herald. Speaking of the coming races for the Seawanhaka international challenge cup, it says:

[...] Read more →

Cocillana Syrup Compound

Guarea guidonia

Recipe

5 Per Cent Alcohol 8-24 Grain – Heroin Hydrochloride 120 Minims – Tincture Euphorbia Pilulifera 120 Minims – Syrup Wild Lettuce 40 Minims – Tincture Cocillana 24 Minims – Syrup Squill Compound 8 Gram – Ca(s)ecarin (P, D, & Co.) 8-100 Grain Menthol

Dose – One-half to one fluidrams (2 to [...] Read more →

Audubon’s Art Method and Techniques

Audubon started to develop a special technique for drawing birds in 1806 a Mill Grove, Pennsylvania. He perfected it during the long river trip from Cincinnati to New Orleans and in New Orleans, 1821.

Home Top of [...] Read more →

Wine Making

Wine Making

Grapes are the world’s leading fruit crop and the eighth most important food crop in the world, exceeded only by the principal cereals and starchytubers. Though substantial quantities are used for fresh fruit, raisins, juice and preserves, most of the world’s annual production of about 60 million [...] Read more →

The Basics of Painting in the Building Trade

PAINTER-WORK, in the building trade. When work is painted one or both of two distinct ends is achieved, namely the preservation and the coloration of the material painted. The compounds used for painting—taking the word as meaning a thin protective or decorative coat—are very numerous, including oil-paint of many kinds, distemper, whitewash, [...] Read more →

Chinese Duck Cooking – A Few Recipes

Chen Lin, Water fowl, in Cahill, James. Ge jiang shan se (Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368, Taiwan edition). Taipei: Shitou chubanshe fen youxian gongsi, 1994. pl. 4:13, p. 180. Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. scroll, light colors on paper, 35.7 x 47.5 cm

 

Snipe Shooting

Snipe shooting-Epistle on snipe shooting, from Ned Copper Cap, Esq., to George Trigger-George Trigger’s reply to Ned Copper Cap-Black partridge.

——

“Si sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum, vivas in &more jooisque.” -Horace. “If nothing appears to you delightful without love and sports, then live in sporta and [...] Read more →

Public Attitudes Towards Speculation

Reprint from The Pitfalls of Speculation by Thomas Gibson 1906 Ed.

THE PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARD SPECULATION

THE public attitude toward speculation is generally hostile. Even those who venture frequently are prone to speak discouragingly of speculative possibilities, and to point warningly to the fact that an overwhelming majority [...] Read more →

Indian Modes of Hunting – Setting Fox Traps

Aug. 13, 1898 Forest and Stream, Pg. 125

Game Bag and Gun.

Indian Modes of Hunting. III.—Foxes.

The fox as a rule is a most wily animal, and numerous are the stories of his cunning toward the Indian hunter with his steel traps.

Of Decorated Furniture

DECORATED or “sumptuous” furniture is not merely furniture that is expensive to buy, but that which has been elaborated with much thought, knowledge, and skill. Such furniture cannot be cheap, certainly, but the real cost of it is sometimes borne by the artist who produces rather than by the man who may [...] Read more →

Christmas Pudding with Dickens

Traditional British Christmas Pudding Recipe by Pen Vogler from the Charles Dickens Museum

Ingredients

85 grams all purpose flour pinch of salt 170 grams Beef Suet 140 grams brown sugar tsp. mixed spice, allspice, cinnamon, cloves, &c 170 grams bread crumbs 170 grams raisins 170 grams currants 55 grams cut mixed peel Gram to [...] Read more →

Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport. Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally [...] Read more →

British Craftsmanship is Alive and Well

The Queen Elizabeth Trust, or QEST, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of British craftsmanship through the funding of scholarships and educational endeavours to include apprenticeships, trade schools, and traditional university classwork. The work of QEST is instrumental in keeping alive age old arts and crafts such as masonry, glassblowing, shoemaking, [...] Read more →

Seeds for Rootstocks of Fruit and Nut Trees

Citrus Fruit Culture

THE PRINCIPAL fruit and nut trees grown commercially in the United States (except figs, tung, and filberts) are grown as varieties or clonal lines propagated on rootstocks.

Almost all the rootstocks are grown from seed. The resulting seedlings then are either budded or grafted with propagating wood [...] Read more →

The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing

The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing Experimental Study and Review of the Literature

Steven L. Henry, MD, Matthew J. Concannon, MD, and Gloria J. Yee, MD Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Missouri Hospital & Clinics, Columbia, MO Published July 25, 2008

Objective: Magnets [...] Read more →

The Hunt Saboteur

The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace barking out loud, black mask on her face get those dogs off, get them off she did yell until a swift kick from me mare her voice it did quell and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale to the full cry of hounds drowning out her [...] Read more →

The Perfect Salad Dressing

The following recipes are from a small booklet entitled 500 Delicious Salads that was published for the Culinary Arts Institute in 1940 by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc. 153 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.

If you have been looking for a way to lighten up your salads and be free of [...] Read more →

Rendering Amber Clear for Use in Lens-Making for Magnifying Glass

by John Partridge,drawing,1825

From the work of Sir Charles Lock Eastlake entitled Materials for a history of oil painting, (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846), we learn the following:

The effect of oil at certain temperatures, in penetrating “the minute pores of the amber” (as Hoffman elsewhere writes), is still more [...] Read more →

Napoleon’s Pharmacists

NAPOLEON’S PHARMACISTS.

Of the making of books about Napoleon there is no end, and the centenary of his death (May 5) is not likely to pass without adding to the number, but a volume on Napoleon”s pharmacists still awaits treatment by the student in this field of historical research. There [...] Read more →

Peach Brandy

PEACH BRANDY

2 gallons + 3 quarts boiled water 3 qts. peaches, extremely ripe 3 lemons, cut into sections 2 sm. pkgs. yeast 10 lbs. sugar 4 lbs. dark raisins

Place peaches, lemons and sugar in crock. Dissolve yeast in water (must NOT be to hot). Stir thoroughly. Stir daily for 7 days. Keep [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

San Felipe Model

Reprinted from FineModelShips.com with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the [...] Read more →

How to Make Money – Insurance

Life insurance certificate issued by the Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance Company to Samuel Holt, Liverpool, England, 1851. On display at the British Museum in London. Donated by the ifs School of Finance. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

From How to Make Money; and How to Keep it, Or, Capital and Labor [...] Read more →

Herbal Psychedelics – Rhododendron ponticum and Mad Honey Disease

Toxicity of Rhododendron From Countrysideinfo.co.UK

“Potentially toxic chemicals, particularly ‘free’ phenols, and diterpenes, occur in significant quantities in the tissues of plants of Rhododendron species. Diterpenes, known as grayanotoxins, occur in the leaves, flowers and nectar of Rhododendrons. These differ from species to species. Not all species produce them, although Rhododendron ponticum [...] Read more →

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika

THE HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA

Translated into English by PANCHAM SINH

Panini Office, Allahabad [1914]

INTRODUCTION.

There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard to the practices of the Haṭha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories told by those who themselves [...] Read more →